Born on January 16

378 Chak Tok Ich'aak I an early Maya king of Mutal. He is one of Tikal's best known kings, with his name recorded on a number of ceramic pieces and a stela, with the possibility of a second stela also being attributed to him
1093 Isaac Komnenos (son of Alexios I) the third son of Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos and Empress Irene Doukaina. He was raised to the high rank of sebastokrator by his older brother John II Komnenos, but they later fell out and Isaac was exiled by John for several years. During the struggle for John's succession in 1143, he supported the unsuccessful candidacy of his nephew, likewise named Isaac, over the younger Manuel I Komnenos. A few years later, he was forced to retire to a monastery by Manuel. Isaac was noted for his erudition and his patronage of learning
1160 Herman III Margrave of Baden Margrave of Verona and Baden.
1245 Edmund Crouchback the second surviving son of King Henry III of England of the House of Plantagenet and Queen Eleanor of Provence. In his childhood he had a claim on the Kingdom of Sicily, but he never ruled there. In 1265 he was granted all the lands of Simon de Montfort and from 1267 he was titled Earl of Leicester. In that year he also began to rule Lancashire, but he did not take the title Earl of Lancaster until 1276. Between 1276 and 1284 he was also Count of Champagne and Brie, governing those counties in right of his second wife, Blanche of Artois, until her daughter from a previous marriage came of age. His nickname, "Crouchback" , refers to his participation in the Ninth Crusade
1362 Robert de Vere Duke of Ireland a favourite and court companion of King Richard II of England.
1477 Johannes Schöner a renowned and respected German polymath. It is best to refer to him using the usual 16th-century Latin term "mathematicus", as the areas of study to which he devoted his life were very different from those now considered to be the domain of the mathematician. He was a priest, astronomer, astrologer, geographer, cosmographer, cartographer, mathematician, globe and scientific instrument maker and editor and publisher of scientific tests. In his own time he enjoyed a European wide reputation as an innovative and influential globe maker and cosmographer and as one of the continents leading and most authoritative astrologers. Today he is remembered as an influential pioneer in the history of globe making and as a man who played a significant role in the events that led up to the publishing of Copernicus' "De revolutionibus" in Nürnberg in 1543
1500 Antonio Musa Brassavola an Italian physician and one of the most famous of his time. He studied under Niccolò Leoniceno and Manardi. He was the friend and physician of Ercolo II, the prince of Este. He was also the consulting physician of Kings Francis I, Charles V, Henry VIII and Popes Paul III, Leo X, Clement VIII and Julius III. He performed the first successful tracheotomy, and published an account of it in 1546. He was the chair of philosophy in Ferrara and also studied botany and medicine. A genus of orchid, called Brassavola, is named after him
1501 Anthony Denny a confidant of Henry VIII of England. Denny was the most prominent member of the Privy chamber in Henry's last years having, together with his brother-in-law John Gates, charge of the "dry stamp" of Henry's signature, and attended Henry on his deathbed. He also served as Groom of the Stool. He was a member of the reformist circle that offset the conservative religious influence of Bishop Gardiner. He was a wealthy man, having acquired manors and former religious sites through the Court of augmentations. By 1548 he was keeper of Westminster Palace
1516 Bayinnaung king of Toungoo Dynasty of Burma from 1550 to 1581. During his 31-year reign, which has been called the "greatest explosion of human energy ever seen in Burma", Bayinnaung assembled the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia, which included much of modern-day Burma, Chinese Shan states, Lan Na, Lan Xang, Manipur and Siam
1538 John Frederick III Duke of Saxony German nobleman. He was a titular Duke of Saxony from the Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin. He received Saxe-Gotha as an apanage, but left its administration to his eldest brother
1558 Jakobea of Baden daughter of the Margrave Philibert of Baden-Baden and Mechthild of Bavaria. She has been compared with Mary Stuart, because both met a violent death in the framework of a religious conflict
1616 François de Vendôme Duke of Beaufort the illegitimate grandson of Henry IV of France. He was also cousin to Louis XIV. He was a prominent figure in the Fronde, and later went on to fight in the Mediterranean. His mother was the heiress Françoise de Lorraine. He is sometimes called François de Vendôme, though he was born into the House of Bourbon, Vendôme coming from his father's title of Duke of Vendôme
1624 Pierre Lambert de la Motte a French bishop. He was a founding member of the Paris Foreign Missions Society and became a missionary in Asia
1626 Lucas Achtschellinck a Flemish landscape painter.
1630 Guru Har Rai the seventh of the Sikh Gurus. He became Guru on 8 March 1644 following the footsteps of his grandfather. Just before his death at age 31, Guru Har Rai Sahib passed the Guru Gaddi to his younger son, the five year old Guru Har Krishan
1634 Dorothe Engelbretsdatter a Norwegian author. She principally wrote hymns and poems. She has been characterized as Norway's first recognized female author as well as Norway's first feminist before feminism became a recognized concept
1653 Johann Conrad Brunner a Swiss anatomist, especially cited for his work on the pancreas and duodenum.
1669 Sava Vladislavich a Serbian diplomat, count and merchant-adventurer in the employ of Peter the Great who conducted important diplomatic negotiations in Constantinople, Rome and Beijing. His most lasting achievement was the Treaty of Kiakhta, which regulated relations between the Russian Empire and the Qing Empire until the mid-19th century. Also, he was an author of a whole number of pamphlets, monographs, treaties and letters concerned with liberating the lands of the Slavs, then occupied by the Ottoman Empire and the forces of Leopold I
1672 Lucy Filippini venerated as a Roman Catholic saint. She was orphaned at an early age when her parents died. From there she went to live with her aristocratic aunt and uncle who encouraged her religious inclination by entrusting her education to the Benedictine nuns at Santa Lucia
1675 Louis de Rouvroy duc de Saint-Simon a French soldier, diplomat and writer of memoirs, was born in Paris. The dukedom-peerage granted to his father, Claude de Rouvroy , is a central fact in his history
1691 Peter Scheemakers a Flemish sculptor who worked for most of his life in London, Great Britain where his public and church sculptures in a classicist style had an important influence on the development of sculpture.
1728 Niccolò Piccinni an Italian composer of symphonies, sacred music, chamber music, and opera. Although he is somewhat obscure, even to music lovers today, Piccinni was one of the most popular composers of opera—particularly the Neapolitan opera buffa—of his day
1740 Willoughby Bertie 4th Earl of Abingdon an English peer and music patron.
1745 Antonio José Cavanilles a leading Spanish taxonomic botanist of the 18th century. He named many plants, particularly from Oceania. He named at least 100 genera, about 54 of which were still used in 2004, including Dahlia, Calycera, Cobaea, Galphimia, and Oleandra
1746 Johann Helfrich von Müller an engineer in the Hessian army who conceived the Difference Engine in 1786, an idea that later evolved into modern computers. In 1784, he was responsible for an improved adding machine based on principles of Leibniz's Stepped Reckoner
1749 Vittorio Alfieri an Italian dramatist and poet, considered the "founder of Italian tragedy.".
1757 Richard Goodwin Keats a British naval officer who fought throughout the American Revolution, French Revolutionary War and Napoleonic War. He retired in 1812 due to ill health and was made Commodore-Governor of Newfoundland from 1813 to 1816. In 1821 he was made Governor of Greenwich Hospital in Greenwich, London. Keats held the post until his death at Greenwich in 1834. Keats is remembered as a capable and well respected officer. His actions at the Battle of Algeciras Bay became legendary
1764 Michel-Marie Pacthod a French officer during the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars, who rose to the rank of General of Division in 1808. A competent and brave infantry commander, his career was much affected by an 1795 incident, while he was the military commander of Marseille, and failed to come to the aid of Napoleon Bonaparte's family, which had taken refuge in the city
1766 Christoph Friedrich von Ammon a German theological writer and preacher. He was born at Bayreuth, Bavaria and died at Dresden
1775 Pyotr Kozmitch Frolov a Russian mining engineer and inventor who, in 1809, built the first horse-railway in Russia. He elaborated on various canal projects and other artificial water constructions. Frolov also contributed to the development of scientific research and to the culture of the Altay region. His activities as a head of the Kolyvano-Voskresensk factories promoted a great advance of Russian technology in the beginning of the 20th century
1783 Nicholas Longworth (winemaker) born in Newark, New Jersey in 1783. In 1804 he moved to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he became a banker and a successful winemaker as well as founder of the Longworth family in Ohio. Longworth was an influential figure in the early history of American wine, producing sparkling Catawba wine from grapes grown in his Ohio River Valley vineyard
1791 Henryk Dembiński a Polish engineer, traveler and general.
1792 Duke Adam of Württemberg a Duke of Württemberg and General in Russian and Polish-Russian service.
1795 Carl Christian Rafn a Danish historian, translator and antiquarian. His scholarship to a large extent focused on translation of Old Norse literature and related Northern European ancient history. He was also noted for his early advocacy of the recognition of Viking explorations of North America
1801 Thomas Clausen (mathematician) a Danish mathematician and astronomer.
1807 Charles Henry Davis a Rear Admiral in the United States Navy, serving primarily during the American Civil War, and with the United States Coast Survey.
1813 Georges Darboy a French Catholic priest, later bishop of Nancy then archbishop of Paris. He was among a group of prominent hostages executed as the Paris Commune of 1871 was about to be overthrown
1815 Henry Halleck a United States Army officer, scholar, and lawyer. A noted expert in military studies, he was known by a nickname that became derogatory, "Old Brains." He was an important participant in the admission of California as a state and became a successful lawyer and land developer. Early in the American Civil War, he was a senior Union Army commander in the Western Theater and then served for almost two years as general-in-chief of all U.S. armies. Halleck became chief of staff to Gen. Ulysses Grant, when he assumed the position of general-in-chief
1820 Johannes Rebmann a German missionary and explorer credited with feats including being the first European, along with his colleague Johann Ludwig Krapf, to enter Africa from the Indian Ocean coast. In addition, he was the first European to find Kilimanjaro. News of Rebmann's discovery was published in the Church Missionary Intelligencer in May 1849, but disregarded as mere fantasy for the next twelve years. The Geographical Society of London held that snow could not possibly occur let alone persist in such latitudes and considered the report to be the hallucination of a malaria-stricken missionary. It was only in 1861 that researchers began their efforts to measure Kilimanjaro. Expeditions to Tanzania between 1861 and 1865, led by the German Baron Carl Claus von der Decken, confirmed Rebmann’s report. Together with his colleague Johann Ludwig Krapf he also discovered Kenya. Their work there is also thought to have had effects on future African expeditions by Europeans, including the exploits of Sir Richard Burton, John Hanning Speke, and David Livingstone. After losing most of his eyesight and entering into a brief marriage, he died of pneumonia
1821 John C. Breckinridge a lawyer and politician from the U.S. state of Kentucky. He represented the Commonwealth in both houses of Congress and in 1857, became the 14th and youngest-ever Vice President of the United States. Serving in the U.S. Senate at the outbreak of the Civil War, he was expelled after joining the Confederate Army. He remains the only Senator of the United States convicted of treason against the United States of America by the Senate. He was appointed Confederate Secretary of War late in the war. A member of the Breckinridge family, he was the grandson of U.S. Attorney General John Breckinridge, son of Kentucky Secretary of State Cabell Breckinridge and father of Arkansas Congressman Clifton Breckinridge
1822 Henri d'Orléans Duke of Aumale a leader of the Orleanists, a political faction in 19th century France associated with constitutional monarchy. He was born in Paris, the fifth son of King Louis-Philippe and Marie Amalie of Bourbon-Sicilies. He used the title duc d'Aumale. He retired from public life in 1883
1825 George Pickett a career United States Army officer who became a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He is best remembered for his participation in the futile and bloody assault at the Battle of Gettysburg that bears his name, Pickett's Charge
1826 Romuald Traugutt a Polish general and war hero, best known for commanding the January Uprising. From October 1863 to August 1864 he was the Dictator of Insurrection. He headed the Polish national government from 17 October 1863 to 20 April 1864, and was president of its Foreign Affairs Office
1831 Jovan Ristić a Serbian statesman, diplomat and historian.
1834 Robert R. Hitt an Assistant Secretary of State and later a member of the United States House of Representatives.
1836 Francis II of the Two Sicilies King of the Two Sicilies from 1859 to 1861. He was the last King of the Two Sicilies, as successive invasions by Giuseppe Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia ultimately brought an end to his rule, and marked the first major event of Italian unification. After he was deposed, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and the Kingdom of Sardinia were merged into the newly formed Kingdom of Italy
1836 Inoue Kaoru a member of the Meiji oligarchy during the Meiji period Empire of Japan. As one of the senior statesman in Japan during that period, he had a tremendous influence on the selection of the nation's leaders and formation of its policies
1836 Nakayama Yoshiko a Japanese lady-in-waiting in the court of the Imperial House of Japan. She was a favourite concubine of Emperor Kōmei and the mother of Emperor Meiji
1838 Franz Brentano an influential German philosopher and psychologist whose influence was felt by other such luminaries as Sigmund Freud, Edmund Husserl, Kazimierz Twardowski and Alexius Meinong, who followed and adapted his views.
1843 Rafaela Ybarra de Vilallonga a member of Bilbao's 19th century wealthy gentry and mother to seven children who - with the approval of her husband José Vilallonga - founded the Congregación de los Santos Angeles Custodios. She was beatified by Pope John Paul II in 1984 and is currently undergoing the canonization process