Died on January 16

309 Pope Marcellus I the Bishop of Rome or Pope from May or June 308 to his death in 309. He succeeded Pope Marcellinus after a considerable interval. Under Maxentius, he was banished from Rome in 309, on account of the tumult caused by the severity of the penances he had imposed on Christians who had lapsed under the recent persecution. He died the same year, being succeeded by Pope Eusebius. His relics are under the altar of San Marcello al Corso in Rome. His third-class feast day is kept on January 16
654 Gao Jifu a chancellor of the Chinese court in the Tang Dynasty, during the reigns of Emperor Taizong and Emperor Gaozong.
662 Pope Benjamin I of Alexandria 38th Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of Mark. He is regarded as one of the greatest patriarchs of the Coptic Church. Benjamin guided the Coptic church through a period of turmoil in Egyptian history that included the fall of Egypt to the Sassanid Empire, followed by Egypt's reconquest under the Byzantines, and finally the Arab Islamic Conquest in 642. After the Arab conquest Pope Benjamin, who was in exile, was allowed to return to Alexandria and resume the patriarchate
1016 Bertha of Burgundy the daughter of Conrad the Peaceful, King of Burgundy and his wife Matilda, daughter of Louis IV, King of France and Gerberga of Saxony. She was named for her father's mother, Bertha of Swabia
1142 Eilika of Saxony the younger daughter of Magnus, Duke of Saxony and Sophia , a daughter of Béla I of Hungary. After the death of her father, she became the heiress of Werben and the Palatinate of Saxony. She married Count Otto of Ballenstedt and was the mother of Albert the Bear
1263 Shinran a Japanese Buddhist monk, who was born in Hino at the turbulent close of the Heian Period and lived during the Kamakura Period. Shinran was a pupil of Hōnen, and the founder of what ultimately became the Jōdo Shinshū sect, in Japan
1327 Nikephoros Choumnos a Byzantine scholar and official of the early Palaiologan period, one of the most important figures in the flowering of arts and letters of the so-called "Palaiologan Renaissance". He is notable for his eleven-year tenure as chief minister of emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos, his intense intellectual rivalry with fellow scholar and official Theodore Metochites, and for building the monastery of the Theotokos Gōrgoepēkoos in Constantinople
1354 Joanna of Châtillon the wife of Walter V of Brienne. She was Duchess of Athens by marriage. She was the daughter of Gaucher de Châtillon, Constable of France and Isabelle de Dreux. Her paternal grandparents were Gaucher IV de Châtillon and Isabelle de Villehardouin. Her maternal grandparents were Robert de Dreux, Viscount of Chateaudun and Isabelle de Villebéon
1373 Humphrey de Bohun 7th Earl of Hereford the son of William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton and Elizabeth de Badlesmere, and grandson of Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford by Elizabeth of Rhuddlan, daughter of King Edward He became heir to the Earldom of Hereford after the death of his childless uncle Humphrey de Bohun, 6th Earl of Hereford.
1391 Muhammed V of Granada the eighth Nasrid ruler of the Moorish Emirate of Granada in Al-Andalus on the Iberian Peninsula.
1400 John Holland 1st Duke of Exeter an English nobleman, primarily remembered for helping cause the downfall of Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester and then for conspiring against Henry IV.
1545 George Spalatin the pseudonym taken by Georg Burkhardt , an important German figure in the history of the Reformation.
1547 Johannes Schöner a renowned and respected German polymath. It is best to refer to him using the usual 16th-century Latin term "mathematicus", as the areas of study to which he devoted his life were very different from those now considered to be the domain of the mathematician. He was a priest, astronomer, astrologer, geographer, cosmographer, cartographer, mathematician, globe and scientific instrument maker and editor and publisher of scientific tests. In his own time he enjoyed a European wide reputation as an innovative and influential globe maker and cosmographer and as one of the continents leading and most authoritative astrologers. Today he is remembered as an influential pioneer in the history of globe making and as a man who played a significant role in the events that led up to the publishing of Copernicus' "De revolutionibus" in Nürnberg in 1543
1554 Christiern Pedersen a Danish canon, humanist scholar, writer, printer and publisher.
1592 John Casimir of the Palatinate-Simmern a German prince and a younger son of Frederick III, Elector Palatine. A firm Calvinist, he was a leader of mercenary troops in the religious wars of the time, including the Dutch Revolt. From 1583–1592 he acted as regent for his nephew, Elector Palatine Frederick IV
1652 Johann von Werth a German general of cavalry in the Thirty Years' War.
1659 Charles Annibal Fabrot a French jurisconsult.
1694 Francesco Morosini the Doge of Venice from 1688 to 1694, at the height of the Great Turkish War. He was a member of a famous noble Venetian family which produced several Doges and generals. He "dressed always in red from top to toe and never went into action without his cat beside him on the poop."
1700 Antonio Draghi a Baroque composer. He possibly was the brother of Giovanni Battista Draghi
1703 Erik Dahlbergh a Swedish engineer, soldier, and field marshal. He was born of peasant stock but he eventually rose to the level of nobility through his military competence. He was renown for fortification works and was called the "Vauban of Sweden"
1710 Emperor Higashiyama the 113th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1711 Joseph Vaz an Oratorian priest and missionary in Ceylon.
1747 Barthold Heinrich Brockes a German poet.
1748 Arnold Drakenborch a Dutch classical scholar.
1750 Ivan Trubetskoy a Russian Field Marshal, promoted in 1728. He was a member of the inner circle of Tsar Peter I of Russia. Made a boyar in 1692, Trubetskoy commanded part of the Russian fleet during the Azov campaigns in 1696. In 1699, he was named governor of Novgorod. Trubetskoy ordered surrender during the Battle of Narva in 1700. He was captured and held prisoner in Sweden until exchanged in 1718
1752 Francis Blomefield an English antiquary, who projected a county history of Norfolk. During his lifetime, he compiled and published detailed accounts of the city of Norwich, Borough of Thetford and the southern hundreds of the county, but died before the whole work could be completed
1769 Johan Pasch a Swedish painter. He was court painter to the Swedish court from 1748 onwards and hovintendent from 1758 onwards. He was the brother of Lorens Pasch the Elder and uncle to Lorens Pasch the Younger and Ulrika Pasch, all three of whom were also painters
1794 Edward Gibbon an English historian and Member of Parliament. His most important work, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, was published in six volumes between 1776 and 1788. The Decline and Fall is known for the quality and irony of its prose, its use of primary sources, and its open criticism of organised religion
1806 Nicolas Leblanc a French chemist and surgeon who discovered how to manufacture soda from common salt.
1809 John Moore (British Army officer) a British soldier and General, also known as Moore of Corunna. He is best known for his military training reforms and for his death at the Battle of Corunna, in which he defeated a French army under Marshal Soult during the Peninsular War
1815 Henry Thornton (reformer) an English economist, banker, philanthropist and parliamentarian.
1817 Alexander J. Dallas (statesman) an American statesman who served as the U.S. Treasury Secretary under President James Madison
1828 Charlotte Buff a youthful acquaintance of the poet Goethe, who fell in love with her. She rejected him and instead married Johann Christian Kestner, a diplomat and art collector. In Goethe's novel The Sorrows of Young Werther, the character of Lotte is in part based on her. Their relationship was characterized by heartiness and lack of constraint. Goethe bought the wedding rings for her and Kestner, in Frankfurt am Main. Charlotte Kestner had four daughters and eight sons, among them August Kestner
1828 Claire de Duras a French writer best known for her 1823 novel called Ourika, which examines issues of racial and sexual equality, and which inspired the 1969 John Fowles novel The French Lieutenant's Woman.
1831 Peter Francisco an American patriot and soldier in the American Revolutionary War.
1834 Jean Nicolas Pierre Hachette born at Mézières, where his father was a bookseller.
1840 František Tkadlík a Czech portrait painter and draftsman.
1846 José María Calatrava y Peinado a Spanish politician who served as Prime Minister of Spain and Minister of State between 1836 and 1837.
1853 Archduke Rainer Joseph of Austria a Viceroy of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia from 1818 to 1848. He was also an Archduke of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia
1853 Matteo Carcassi a famous Italian guitarist and composer.
1854 Charles Gaudichaud-Beaupré a French botanist.
1855 Nikolay Protasov a Russian general and Ober-Procurator of the Most Holy Synod from 24 February 1836 to 16 January 1855.
1856 Thaddeus William Harris an American entomologist and botanist. For the last few years of his life Harris was the librarian of Harvard University
1860 Narcisse Girard a French violinist, conductor and composer.
1862 Denis Zubrytsky the first Ukrainian historian in Galicia and a major early figure in the Galician Russophile movement.
1864 Anton Schindler an associate, secretary, and early biographer of Ludwig van Beethoven. He was born in Medlov, Moravia and died in Bockenheim
1866 Phineas Quimby an American spiritual teacher. Quimby was a philosopher, magnetizer, mesmerist, healer, and inventor, who resided in Belfast, Maine, and had an office in Portland, Maine. Quimby's work is widely recognized as leading to the New Thought movement
1871 Jules Pierre Fourreau a French botanist.
1871 Jacques Louis Randon a French military and political leader, also Marshal of France and governor of Algeria.
1874 Max Schultze a German microscopic anatomist noted for his work on cell theory.