January 16 events in history

378 General Siyaj K'ak' conquers Tikal, enlarging the domain of King Spearthrower Owl of Teotihuacán
550 Gothic War: The Ostrogoths, under King Totila, conquer Rome after a long siege, by bribing the Isaurian garrison
929 Emir Abd-ar-Rahman III established the Caliphate of Córdoba
1120 The Council of Nablus is held, establishing the earliest surviving written laws of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem
1362 A storm tide in the North Sea destroys the German city of Rungholt on the island of Strand
1412 The Medici family is appointed official banker of the Papacy
1492 The first grammar of the Spanish language is presented to Queen Isabella I
1547 Ivan IV of Russia aka Ivan the Terrible becomes Czar of Russia
1556 Philip II becomes King of Spain
1572 Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England
1581 The English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism
1605 The first edition of El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha (Book One of Don Quixote) by Miguel de Cervantes is published in Madrid, Spain
1707 The Scottish Parliament ratifies the Act of Union, paving the way for the creation of Great Britain
1761 The British capture Pondichéry, India from the French
1780 American Revolutionary War: Battle of Cape St. Vincent
1786 Virginia enacted the Statute for Religious Freedom authored by Thomas Jefferson
1809 Peninsular War: The British defeat the French at the Battle of La Coruña
1847 John C. Frémont is appointed Governor of the new California Territory
1862 Hartley Colliery Disaster: 204 men and boys killed in a mining disaster, prompted a change in UK law which henceforth required all collieries to have at least two independent means of escape
1878 Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) – Battle of Philippopolis: Captain Aleksandr Burago with a squadron of Russian Imperial army dragoons liberates Plovdiv from Ottoman rule
1883 The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act, establishing the United States Civil Service, is passed
1896 Defeat of Cymru Fydd at South Wales Liberal Federation AGM, Newport, Monmouthshire
1900 The United States Senate accepts the Anglo-German treaty of 1899 in which the United Kingdom renounces its claims to the Samoan islands
1909 Ernest Shackleton's expedition finds the magnetic South Pole
1919 Temperance movement: The United States ratifies the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, authorizing Prohibition in the United States one year after ratification
1920 Zeta Phi Beta Sorority Incorporated was founded on the campus of Howard University
1920 The League of Nations holds its first council meeting in Paris, France
1924 Eleftherios Venizelos becomes Prime Minister of Greece for the fourth time
1939 The Irish Republican Army (IRA) begins a bombing and sabotage campaign in England
1942 Crash of TWA Flight 3, killing all 22 aboard, including film star Carole Lombard
1945 Adolf Hitler moves into his underground bunker, the so-called Führerbunker
1956 President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt vows to reconquer Palestine
1964 Hello, Dolly! (musical) starring Carol Channing opened on Broadway, beginning a run of 2,844 performances
1969 Czech student Jan Palach commits suicide by self-immolation in Prague, Czechoslovakia, in protest against the Soviets' crushing of the Prague Spring the year before
1969 Soviet spacecraft Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5 perform the first-ever docking of manned spacecraft in orbit, the first-ever transfer of crew from one space vehicle to another, and the only time such a transfer was accomplished with a space walk
1970 Buckminster Fuller receives the Gold Medal award from the American Institute of Architects
1979 The last Iranian Shah flees Iran with his family for good and relocates to Egypt
1986 First meeting of the Internet Engineering Task Force
1991 The Coalition Forces go to war with Iraq, beginning the Gulf War (U.S. Time)
1992 El Salvador officials and rebel leaders sign the Chapultepec Peace Accords in Mexico City, Mexico ending the 12-year Salvadoran Civil War that claimed at least 75,000 lives
2001 Congolese President Laurent-Désiré Kabila is assassinated by one of his own bodyguards
2001 US President Bill Clinton awards former President Theodore Roosevelt a posthumous Medal of Honor for his service in the Spanish–American War
2002 The UN Security Council unanimously establishes an arms embargo and the freezing of assets of Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda, and the remaining members of the Taliban
2003 The Space Shuttle Columbia takes off for mission STS-107 which would be its final one. Columbia disintegrated 16 days later on re-entry
2005 Romanian university lecturer and novelist Adriana Iliescu gives birth at 66 to her daughter Eliza, breaking the record for the oldest birth mother in the world
2006 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf is sworn in as Liberia's new president. She becomes Africa's first female elected head of state
2013 An estimated 41 international workers are taken hostage in an attack in the town of In Aménas, Algeria