Born on January 18

748 Odilo Duke of Bavaria Duke of Bavaria from 736 until his death. He had the Lex Baiuvariorum compilation edited, the first ancient Germanic law collection of the Bavarians
1519 Isabella Jagiellon Queen consort of the "Eastern Hungarian Kingdom" as the wife of John Zápolya.
1543 Alfonso Ferrabosco the elder an Italian composer. While mostly famous as the solitary Italian madrigalist working in England, and the one mainly responsible for the growth of the madrigal there, he also composed much sacred music. He also may have been a spy for Elizabeth I while he was in Italy
1573 Ambrosius Bosschaert a still life painter of the Dutch Golden Age.
1641 François-Michel le Tellier Marquis de Louvois the French Secretary of State for War for a significant part of the reign of Louis XIV. Louvois and his father, Michel le Tellier, would increase the French Army to 400,000 soldiers, an army that would fight four wars between 1667 and 1713. He is commonly referred to as "Louvois"
1659 Damaris Cudworth Masham an English philosopher.
1669 Maria Antonia of Austria the eldest daughter and only surviving child of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I and his wife Margaret Theresa of Spain. She became Electress of Bavaria when she married in 1685, but died prematurely in 1692
1672 Antoine Houdar de la Motte a French author.
1674 Nicolas-Henri Tardieu a prominent French engraver, known for his sensitive reproductions of Antoine Watteau's paintings. He was appointed graveur du roi to King Louis XV of France. His second wife, Marie-Anne Horthemels, came from a family that included engravers and painters. She is known as an engraver in her own right. Nicolas-Henri and Marie-Anne Tardieu had many descendants who were noted artists, most of them engravers
1688 Lionel Sackville 1st Duke of Dorset an English political leader and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.
1689 Montesquieu a French lawyer, man of letters, and political philosopher who lived during the Age of Enlightenment. He is famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, which is implemented in many constitutions throughout the world. He did more than any other author to secure the place of the word despotism in the political lexicon, and may have been partly responsible for the popularization of the terms feudalism and Byzantine Empire
1701 Johann Jakob Moser a German jurist, publicist and researcher, whose work earned him the title "The Father of German Constitutional Law" and whose political commitment to the principles of Liberalism caused him to lose academic positions and spend years as a political prisoner.
1726 Prince Henry of Prussia (1726–1802) a Prince of Prussia. He also served as a general and statesman, and, in 1786, was suggested as a candidate for a monarch for the United States
1733 Caspar Friedrich Wolff a German physiologist and one of the founders of embryology.
1743 Louis Claude de Saint-Martin a French philosopher, known as le philosophe inconnu, the name under which his works were published.
1750 Johann Gottlob Theaenus Schneider a German classicist and naturalist.
1751 Ferdinand Kauer an Austrian composer and pianist.
1752 Alexander Kurakin a Russian statesman and diplomat, a member of the State Council , who was ranked Actual Privy Counsellor 1st Class.
1752 John Nash (architect) a British architect responsible for much of the layout of Regency London under the patronage of the Prince Regent, and during his reign as George Nash was also a pioneer in the use of the Picturesque in architecture. His best-known buildings are the Royal Pavilion, Brighton, and Buckingham Palace
1757 Sir Charles Pole 1st Baronet Admiral of the Fleet Sir Charles Morice Pole, 1st Baronet naval officer and colonial governor born England and died Denham Abbey, Hertfordshire, England.
1770 Lucile Duplessis the wife of the French revolutionary and journalist Camille Desmoulins. She was the daughter of Claude Etienne Laridon Duplessis, an official of the French Treasury, and Anne Françoise Marie Boisdeveix. Her sister, Adèle Duplessis, was briefly engaged to Maximilien Robespierre
1770 Nicolas Léonard Beker or Nicolas Léonard Becker or Nicolas Léonard Bagert, born 18 January 1770 – died 18 November 1840, joined the French army as a dragoon before the French Revolutionary Wars and rose in rank to become a general officer. In 1800 he married the sister of Louis Desaix, who was killed at the Battle of Marengo. He led an infantry brigade in the 1805 campaign and commanded a dragoon division in 1806 and 1807. In 1809 he became chief of staff to Marshal André Masséna but ran afoul of Emperor Napoleon and was banished from the army for several years
1774 Anna Bunina a Russian poet. She was the first female Russian writer to make a living solely from literary work. She is an ancestor of Nobel Prize winner Ivan Bunin
1779 Peter Mark Roget a British physician, natural theologian and lexicographer. He is best known for publishing, in 1852, the Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases , a classified collection of related words
1782 Daniel Webster a leading American senator and statesman during the era of the Second Party System. He was the outstanding spokesman for American nationalism with powerful oratory that made him a key Whig leader. He spoke for conservatives, and led the opposition to Democrat Andrew Jackson and his Democratic Party. He was a spokesman for modernization, banking, and industry, but not for the common people who composed the base of his opponents in Jacksonian Democracy. "He was a thoroughgoing elitist, and he reveled in it," says biographer Robert Remini. During his 40 years in national politics, Webster served in the House of Representatives for 10 years , in the Senate for 19 years , and was appointed the United States Secretary of State under three presidents
1792 Gustav Bischof a German chemist, born in Nuremberg, Bavaria. He died in Bonn
1795 Anna Pavlovna of Russia a queen consort of the Netherlands. In the Netherlands, due to nineteenth century Dutch transliteration conventions, she is better known as Anna Paulowna
1803 Francis Grant (artist) a Scottish portrait painter, who painted Queen Victoria and many distinguished British aristocratic and political figures of the day. He served as President of the Royal Academy
1808 Princess Vilhelmine Marie of Denmark the youngest daughter of Frederick VI of Denmark and his wife and first cousin Marie Sophie of Hesse-Kassel. Her paternal grandfather, Christian VII of Denmark, had major psychological problems and as result, her father had been acting as Regent since 1784. Within two months of her birth, Vilhelmine Marie's grandfather died of a cerebral aneurysm and her father ascended as king
1811 Édouard René de Laboulaye a French jurist, poet, author and anti-slavery activist. He is remembered as the intellectual creator of the Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor, proposing the idea for a monument in 1865 paid by the citizens of France, and the lesser known Luxembourg Gardens in Paris, France
1811 Charles Kean born at Waterford, Ireland, the son of the actor Edmund Kean.
1813 Joseph Glidden an American farmer who patented barbed wire, a product that forever altered the development of the American West.
1815 Warren De la Rue a British astronomer and chemist, most famous for his pioneering work in astronomical photography.
1815 Constantin von Tischendorf a world leading Biblical scholar at his time. He discovered the worlds oldest and most complete bible from 325 AD in 1844, with complete New Testament not discovered before. This bible is called Codex Sinaiticus, after the St Catherine Monastery, where Tischendorf discovered it and can be seen either in the British Library in London, or as a digitalised version in the internet. Tischendorf was made an Honorary Doctor by Oxford University 16.3.1865, and an Honorary Doctor by Cambridge University on 9.3.1865 following this find of the century. As student he gained his academic degree and international recognition when he deciphered the Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus, a 5th-century Greek manuscript of the New Testament, in the 1840s
1818 Johannes Heinrich August Ebrard a German theologian.
1818 Joseph Matthäus Aigner a 19th-century Austrian portrait painter, who studied under Friedrich von Amerling and Carl Rahl. He painted portraits of Franz Joseph I of Austria and his wife Elizabeth, Franz Grillparzer, Friedrich Halm, Nikolaus Lenau, and Maximilian I of Mexico
1819 Henriette Nissen-Saloman a Swedish opera singer and singing pedagogue.
1823 Chichester Parkinson-Fortescue 1st Baron Carlingford a British Liberal politician of the 19th century.
1823 Victor Ruffy a Swiss politician.
1823 Carl Heissler an Austrian violinist and violist.
1828 Thomas Kirk (botanist) an English-born botanist, teacher, public servant, writer and churchman who moved to New Zealand with his wife and four children in late 1862. The New Zealand government commissioned him in 1884 to compile a report on the indigenous forests of the country and appointed him as chief conservator of forests the following year. He published 130 papers in botany and plants including The Durability of New Zealand Timbers, The Forest Flora of New Zealand and Students' Flora of New Zealand
1829 Ludvig Lorenz a Danish mathematician and physicist. He developed mathematical formulae to describe phenomena such as the relation between the refraction of light and the density of a pure transparent substance, and the relation between a metal's electrical and thermal conductivity and temperature
1836 Gottlieb Graf von Haeseler a German military officer of the Imperial Wilhelmine period, with final rank of Generalfeldmarschall.
1840 Alfred Percy Sinnett an English author and theosophist.
1840 Ernst Rudorff a German composer and music teacher, also a founder of nature protection movement.
1840 Henry Austin Dobson an English poet and essayist.
1841 Emmanuel Chabrier a French Romantic composer and pianist. Although known primarily for two of his orchestral works, España and Joyeuse marche, he left an important corpus of operas , songs, and piano music. He was admired by composers as diverse as Debussy, Ravel, Richard Strauss, Satie, Schmitt, Stravinsky, and the group of composers known as Les six. Stravinsky alluded to España in his ballet Petrushka; Gustav Mahler called España "the beginnings of modern music" and alluded to the "Dance Villageoise" in the Rondo Burleske movement of his Ninth Symphony. Ravel wrote that the opening bars of Le roi malgré lui changed the course of harmony in France, Poulenc wrote a biography of the composer, and Richard Strauss conducted the first staged performance of Chabrier's incomplete opera Briséïs
1842 A. A. Ames Albert Alonzo "Doc" Ames held four non-consecutive terms as mayor of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Ames was known for his service to his country and assistance of the poor, sometimes giving medical treatment to those who could not afford However, he became exceedingly more famous by creating the most corrupt government in the city's history. The story became known across the United States when muckraking journalist Lincoln Steffens wrote an article in 1903 about the corruption and the efforts of a local grand jury to stop The article, The Shame of Minneapolis, was later included in a collection of similar exposes in the book The Shame of the Cities, published in 1906
1847 Geltrude Comensoli the Patron of Youth, Val Camonica and Relic Custodians.
1848 Ioan Slavici a Transylvanian-born Romanian writer and journalist. He made his debut in Convorbiri literare , with the comedy Fata de birău. Alongside Eminescu he founded the Young Romania Social and Literary Academic Society and organized, in 1871, the Putna Celebration of the Romanian Students from Romania and from abroad. At the end of 1874, he settled in Bucharest, where he became secretary of the Hurmuzachi Collection Committee, then he became a professor, and then an editor of the newspaper Timpul. Alongside L. Caragiale and Coşbuc, he edited the Vatra review. During the first World War, he collaborated at the newspapers Ziua and Gazeta Bucureștilor. He was awarded the Romanian Academy Award