Died on January 18

474 Leo I the Thracian Byzantine Emperor from 457 to 474. A native of Dacia Aureliana near historic Thrace, he was known as Leo the Thracian
1121 William of Champeaux a French philosopher and theologian.
1122 Christina Ingesdotter of Sweden a Swedish princess and a princess consort of Veliky Novgorod, Rostov and Belgorod, by marriage to Grand Prince Mstislav I of Kiev.
1174 Vladislaus II Duke of Bohemia the second King of Bohemia from 1158. Before that he had been Duke of Bohemia from 1140. When he abdicated in 1172, the royal title was not yet hereditary
1213 Tamar of Georgia the Great reigned as Queen of Georgia from 1184 to 1213, presiding over the apex of the Georgian Golden Age. A member of the Bagrationi dynasty, her position as the first woman to rule Georgia in her own right was emphasized by the title mep'e , commonly afforded to Tamar in the medieval Georgian sources
1216 Guy II of Dampierre constable of Champagne, and Lord of Dampierre, Bourbon and Montluçon. He was the only son of William I of Dampierre, Lord of Dampierre, and Ermengarde of Mouchy
1221 Theodoric I Margrave of Meissen the Margrave of Meissen from 1198 until his death. He was the second son of Otto II, Margrave of Meissen and Hedwig of Brandenburg
1253 Henry I of Cyprus King of Cyprus from 1218 to 1253. He was the son of Hugh I of Cyprus and Alice of Champagne of Jerusalem. When his father Hugh I died on January 10, 1218, the 8-month-old Henry became king. His mother was the official Regent, but handed off the actual governing to her uncle, Philip of Ibelin. When Philip died, the effective regency passed to his brother, John of Ibelin, the Old Lord of Beirut
1271 Saint Margaret of Hungary a Dominican nun and the daughter of King Béla IV of Hungary and Maria Laskarina. She was the younger sister of Kinga of Poland and the Blessed Yolanda of Poland and, through her father, the niece of the famed Saint Elizabeth of Hungary
1328 Engelbert II of the Mark Count of the Mark and through marriage, Count of Arenberg.
1357 Maria of Portugal Queen of Castile a Portuguese infanta , Queen consort of Castile upon her marriage to Alfonso XI in 1328, and mother of King Peter of Castile. She was the first daughter of King Afonso IV of Portugal and his first wife Beatrice of Castile. Her maternal grandparents were Sancho IV of Castile and María de Molina
1360 Ludovico I Gonzaga an Italian lord, the founder of the Gonzaga family who was the first capitano del popolo of Mantua and imperial vicar.
1367 Peter I of Portugal King of Portugal and the Algarve from 1357 until his death. He was the third but only surviving son of Afonso IV of Portugal and his wife, princess Beatrice of Castile
1411 Jobst of Moravia Margrave of Moravia from 1375, Duke of Luxembourg and Elector of Brandenburg from 1388 as well as elected King of Germany from 1410 until his death. Jobst was an ambitious and versatile ruler, who in the early 15th century dominated the ongoing struggles within the Luxembourg dynasty and around the German throne
1425 Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl of March heir presumptive to King Richard II of England. After the deposition of Richard II, because of Mortimer's claim to the crown, he was the focus of plots against King Henry IV and King Henry Mortimer was the last Earl of March to come from his family
1471 Emperor Go-Hanazono the 102nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1428 through 1464
1479 Louis IX Duke of Bavaria Duke of Bavaria-Landshut from 1450. He was a son of Henry XVI the Rich and Margaret of Austria
1546 Blasco Núñez Vela the first Spanish viceroy of Peru, from May 15, 1544 to January 18, 1546. He was charged by King Charles I with the enforcement of the controversial New Laws, which dealt with the failure of the encomienda system to protect the indigenous people of America from the rapacity of the conquistadors and their descendants
1547 Pietro Bembo an Italian scholar, poet, literary theorist, member of the Knights Hospitaller and a cardinal. He was an influential figure in the development of the Italian language, specifically Tuscan, as a literary medium, codifying the language for standard modern usage. His writings assisted in the 16th-century revival of interest in the works of Petrarch. Bembo's ideas were also decisive in the formation of the most important secular musical form of the 16th century, the madrigal
1586 Margaret of Parma Governor of the Netherlands from 1559 to 1567 and from 1578 to 1582. She was the illegitimate daughter of the then 22-year-old Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Johanna Maria van der Gheynst. She was a Duchess of Florence and a Duchess of Parma and Piacenza by marriage
1604 Luis de Velasco marqués de Salinas Spanish nobleman, son of the second viceroy of New Spain, and himself the eighth viceroy. He governed from January 27, 1590 to November 4, 1595, and again from July 2, 1607 to June 10, 1611. In between he was viceroy of Peru for eight years
1646 Hosokawa Tadaoki a Japanese samurai warrior of the late Sengoku period and early Edo period.
1677 Jan van Riebeeck a Dutch colonial administrator and founder of Cape Town.
1685 Wentworth Dillon 4th Earl of Roscommon an English poet.
1735 Maria Clementina Sobieska a Polish noblewoman, the granddaughter of the Polish king John III Sobieski.
1747 Antoni Lliteres Carrió a Spanish composer of zarzuelas. As with other national forms of baroque opera, Literes's stage works employ a wide variety of musical forms - arias, ariettas and recitative as well as dance movements and choruses, though here mingled with spoken verse dialogue. His use of the orchestra follows French and Italian practise in including guitars, lutes, and harpsichords amongst the continuo instruments
1760 Claudio Casciolini an Italian composer. His compositions include a three-part Missa pro defunctis, eight-part Zacchee festinans descende and a Missa brevissima. From April 1726 until his death he sang bass at the church of San Lorenzo in Damaso where he may also have been maestro di cappella
1761 Archduke Charles Joseph of Austria (1745–1761) the second son of the Habsburg ruler Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor.
1782 John Pringle a Scottish physician who has been called the "father of military medicine".
1799 Heinrich Johann Nepomuk von Crantz a botanist and a physician.
1803 Sylvain Maréchal a French essayist, poet, philosopher, and, as a political theorist, precursor of utopian socialism and communism. Maréchal was also the editor of the newspaper Révolutions de Paris
1803 Ippolit Bogdanovich a Russian classicist author of light poetry, best known for his long poem Dushenka.
1805 John Moore (archbishop of Canterbury) Archbishop of Canterbury in the Church of England.
1815 Stanislas de Boufflers a French statesman and writer.
1831 Yakov Lobanov-Rostovsky (1760–1831) a Russian statesman.
1845 Aleksey Greig an admiral of the Imperial Russian Navy. He was the son of Admiral Samuel Greig, brother-in-law of Mary Somerville, and father of Samuil Greig, Russian Minister of Finance
1849 Panoutsos Notaras a leading figure of the Greek War of Independence, serving several times as president of the Greek national assemblies and legislative bodies.
1858 William Cavendish 6th Duke of Devonshire a British peer, courtier and Whig politician. Known as the "Bachelor Duke", he was Lord Chamberlain of the Household between 1827 and 1828 and again between 1830 and 1834
1859 Alfred Vail an American machinist and inventor. Vail was central, with Samuel B. Morse, in developing and commercializing the telegraph between 1837 and 1844. Vail and Morse were the first two telegraph operators on Morse's first experimental line between Washington, DC, and Baltimore, and Vail took charge of building and managing several early telegraph lines between 1845 and 1848. He was also responsible for several technical innovations of Morse's system, particularly the sending key and improved recording registers and relay magnets. Vail left the telegraph industry in 1848 because he believed that the managers of Morse's lines did not fully value his contributions. His last assignment, superintendent of the Washington and New Orleans Telegraph Company, paid him only $900 a year, leading Vail to write to Morse, "I have made up my mind to leave the Telegraph to take care of itself, since it cannot take care of I shall, in a few months, leave Washington for New Jersey,... and bid adieu to the subject of the Telegraph for some more profitable business."
1862 John Tyler the tenth President of the United States. He was elected vice president on the 1840 Whig ticket with William Henry Harrison, and became president after his running mate's death in April 1841. Tyler was known as a supporter of states' rights, which endeared him to his fellow Virginians, yet his acts as president showed that he was willing to support nationalist policies as long as they did not infringe on the rights of the states. Still, the circumstances of his unexpected rise to the presidency and his possible threat to the ambitions of other potential presidential candidates left him estranged from both major parties in Washington. A firm believer in manifest destiny, President Tyler sought to strengthen and preserve the Union through territorial expansion, most notably the annexation of the independent Republic of Texas in his last days in office
1863 Mangas Coloradas present-day southwestern New Mexico. He was the father-in-law of the Chiricahua Chief Cochise, the Mimbreño Chief Victorio and the Mescalero Chief Kutbhalla , and is regarded by many historians to be one of the most important native American leaders of the 19th century due to his fighting achievements against Mexicans and Americans
1863 Sa'id of Egypt the Wāli of Egypt and Sudan from 1854 until 1863, officially owing fealty to the Ottoman Sultan but in practice exercising virtual independence. He was the fourth son of Muhammad Ali Pasha. Sa'id was a Francophone, educated in Paris
1865 James Beaumont Neilson a Scottish inventor whose hot-blast process greatly increased the efficiency of smelting iron.
1869 Bertalan Szemere a Hungarian poet and nationalist who became the third Prime Minister of Hungary during the short period of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 when Hungary was independent of rule by the Austrian Empire.
1870 Samuel Bailey a British philosopher and writer. He was called the "Bentham of Hallamshire"
1871 George Hayter a notable English painter, specialising in portraits and large works involving in some cases several hundred individual portraits. Queen Victoria appreciated his merits and appointed Hayter her Principal Painter in Ordinary and also awarded him a Knighthood 1841
1873 Charles Dupin a French Catholic mathematician, engineer, economist and politician, particularly known for work in the field of mathematics, where the Dupin cyclide and Dupin indicatrix are named after him; and for his work in the field of statistical and thematic mapping, In 1826 he created the earliest known choropleth map.
1873 Edward Bulwer-Lytton an English novelist, poet, playwright, and politician. He was immensely popular with the reading public and wrote a stream of bestselling novels which earned him a considerable fortune. He coined the phrases "the great unwashed", "pursuit of the almighty dollar", "the pen is mightier than the sword", "dweller on the threshold", as well as the infamous opening line "It was a dark and stormy night"
1877 Princess Marie of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (1808–1877) born on 3 February 1808 in Weimar. She was a princess of Saxe-Wiemar-Eisenach by birth, and by marriage a princess of Prussia. She was the daughter of Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach and Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia
1878 Frans de Cort a Flemish writer. Professionally he was, first a clerk, editor, bookkeeper for a shipping company, and in 1861 a secretary at the military court