Born on January 19

398 Pulcheria the second child of Eastern Roman Emperor Arcadius and Empress Aelia Eudoxia. Her older sister was Flaccilla, born in 397 but assumed to have died young. Her younger siblings were Arcadia, born in 400, Theodosius II, the future emperor, and Marina, both born in 401. When her father died in 408, Theodosius II was made Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, at seven years of age. On July 4, 414 a fifteen-year-old Pulcheria proclaimed herself regent over him, then thirteen years of age, and made herself Augusta and Empress of the Eastern Roman Empire. According to the historian Sozomen, in his Ecclesiastical History, Pulcheria took a vow of virginity when she became Augusta, and her sisters followed suit. Theodosius II died on July 26, 450, and Pulcheria soon married Marcian on November 25, 450. Marcian and Pulcheria were proclaimed Emperor and Empress of the Eastern Roman Empire. Three years later, in July 453, Pulcheria died and was later made a saint by the Church. Pulcheria is known to have held a significant amount of power in her brother's reign as emperor. Pulcheria was also of great influence over the church and theological practices of this time, including over anti-pagan policies, church-building projects, and the debate over the Marian title Theotokos
840 Michael III Byzantine Emperor from 842 to 867. Michael III was the third and traditionally last member of the Amorian Dynasty, also known as the Phrygian Dynasty. He was given the disparaging epithet the Drunkard by the hostile historians of the succeeding Macedonian dynasty, but modern historical research has rehabilitated his reputation to some extent, demonstrating the vital role his reign played in the resurgence of Byzantine power in the 9th century
1200 Dōgen a Japanese Zen Buddhist teacher born in Kyōto. He founded the Sōtō school of Zen in Japan after travelling to China and training under Rujing, a master of the Chinese Caodong lineage
1409 René of Anjou Duke of Anjou, Count of Provence , Count of Piedmont, Duke of Bar , Duke of Lorraine , King of Naples , titular King of Jerusalem and Aragon.
1544 Francis II of France a monarch of the House of Valois-Angoulême who was King of France from 1559 to 1560. He was also King consort of Scotland as a result of his marriage to Mary, Queen of Scots, from 1558 until his death
1563 Leonhard Hutter a German Lutheran theologian.
1601 Guido Cagnacci an Italian painter of the late-Baroque period, belonging to the Forlì painting school and to the Bolognese School.
1661 Thomas Venner a cooper and rebel who became the last leader of the Fifth Monarchy Men, who tried unsuccessfully to overthrow Oliver Cromwell in 1657, and subsequently led a coup in London against the newly restored government of Charles This event, known as "Venner's Rising", lasted four days before the Royal authorities captured the rebels. The rebel leadership suffered execution on 19 January 1661
1676 John Weldon (musician) an English composer.
1721 Jean-Philippe Baratier a German scholar. A noted child prodigy of the 18th century, he published eleven works and authored a great quantity of unpublished manuscripts
1724 Dai Zhen a prominent Chinese scholar of the Qing dynasty from Xiuning, Anhui. A versatile scholar, he made great contributions to mathematics, geography, phonology and philosophy. His philosophical and philological critiques of Neo-Confucianism continue to be influential
1732 Shuja-ud-Daula the Subedar Nawab of Oudh from 5 October 1754 to 26 January 1775.
1736 James Watt a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer whose improvements to the Newcomen steam engine were fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.
1737 Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre a French writer and botanist. He is best known for his 1788 novel Paul et Virginie, now largely forgotten, but in the 19th century a very popular children's book
1737 Giuseppe Millico best remembered for his performances in the operas of Christoph Willibald Gluck.
1739 Joseph Bonomi the Elder an Italian architect and draughtsman notable for his activity in England.
1747 Johann Elert Bode a German astronomer known for his reformulation and popularization of the Titius–Bode law. Bode determined the orbit of Uranus and suggested the planet's name
1749 Princess Casimire of Anhalt-Dessau a princess of Anhalt-Dessau by birth and Countess of Lippe-Detmold by marriage.
1752 James Morris III a Continental Army officer from Connecticut during the American Revolutionary War and founder of the Morris Academy, a pioneer in coeducation.
1756 Guillaume-Antoine Olivier a French entomologist.
1756 Martin-Michel-Charles Gaudin a French statesman, Napoleon I Bonaparte's Minister of Finances from November 1799 to March 1814, including the Cent Jours following Napoleon's return from Elba.
1757 Countess Augusta Reuss of Ebersdorf by marriage a duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She was born in Saalburg-Ebersdorf. She was the maternal grandmother of Queen Victoria and the paternal grandmother of Albert, Prince Consort
1760 Patrick Cotter O'Brien the first of only thirteen people in medical history to stand at a verified height of eight feet or more. O'Brien was born in Kinsale, County Cork, Ireland. His real name was Patrick Cotter and he adopted O'Brien as his stage name in the sideshow circus. He was also known as the Bristol Giant and the Irish Giant
1762 Louis Stanislas de Girardin a French general, prefect, and deputy.
1781 Christian von Steven a Finnish-born Russian botanist and entomologist of Swiss origin.
1785 Prince Paul of Württemberg the fourth child and second son of King Frederick I and his wife, Duchess Augusta of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.
1788 Pavel Kiselyov generally regarded as the most brilliant Russian reformer during Nicholas I's generally conservative reign.
1790 Per Daniel Amadeus Atterbom a Swedish romantic poet, and a member of the Swedish Academy.
1793 Karl Wilhelm Göttling a German philologist and classical scholar.
1797 Henri-Bernard Dabadie a French baritone, particularly associated with Rossini and Auber roles.
1798 Auguste Comte a French philosopher. He was a founder of the discipline of sociology and of the doctrine of positivism. He is sometimes regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term
1802 Sylvain Van de Weyer a Belgian politician, and then the Belgian Minister at the Court of James's, effectively the ambassador to the United Kingdom.
1803 Sarah Helen Whitman a poet, essayist, transcendentalist, Spiritualist and a romantic interest of Edgar Allan Poe.
1806 Alecu Donici a Moldavian-born Romanian poet and translator.
1807 Robert E. Lee an American soldier best known for commanding the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in the American Civil War from 1862 until his surrender in 1865. The son of Revolutionary War officer Henry "Light Horse Harry" Lee III and a top graduate of the United States Military Academy, Robert Lee was an exceptional officer and combat engineer in the United States Army for 32 years. During this time, he served throughout the United States, distinguished himself during the Mexican–American War, served as Superintendent of the United States Military Academy, and married Mary Custis
1808 Lysander Spooner an American individualist anarchist, political philosopher, Deist, Unitarian abolitionist, supporter of the labor movement, legal theorist, and entrepreneur of the nineteenth century. He is also known for competing with the U.S. Post Office with his American Letter Mail Company, which was forced out of business by the United States federal government
1809 Edgar Allan Poe an American author, poet, editor, and literary critic, considered part of the American Romantic Movement. Best known for his tales of mystery and the macabre, Poe was one of the earliest American practitioners of the short story, and is generally considered the inventor of the detective fiction genre. He is further credited with contributing to the emerging genre of science fiction. He was the first well-known American writer to try to earn a living through writing alone, resulting in a financially difficult life and career
1813 Henry Bessemer an English engineer, inventor, and businessman. Bessemer's name is chiefly known in connection with the Bessemer process for the manufacture of steel
1819 William Powell Frith an English painter specialising in genre subjects and panoramic narrative works of life in the Victorian era. He was elected to the Royal Academy in 1853, presenting The Sleeping Model as his Diploma work. He has been described as the "greatest British painter of the social scene since Hogarth"
1821 Ferdinand Gregorovius a German historian who specialized in the medieval history of Rome.
1832 Ferdinand Laub a Czech violinist and composer.
1833 Alfred Clebsch a German mathematician who made important contributions to algebraic geometry and invariant theory. He attended the University of Königsberg and was habilitated at Berlin. He subsequently taught in Berlin and Karlsruhe. His collaboration with Paul Gordan in Giessen led to the introduction of Clebsch–Gordan coefficients for spherical harmonics, which are now widely used in quantum mechanics
1835 Auguste Kerckhoffs a Dutch linguist and cryptographer who was professor of languages at the École des Hautes Études Commerciales in Paris in the late 19th century.
1839 William Philip Hiern a British mathematician and botanist.
1839 Paul Cézanne a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th-century conception of artistic endeavour to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th century. Cézanne's often repetitive, exploratory brushstrokes are highly characteristic and clearly recognizable. He used planes of colour and small brushstrokes that build up to form complex fields. The paintings convey Cézanne's intense study of his subjects
1842 George Trumbull Ladd an American philosopher, educator and psychologist.
1844 Gustav von Bunge a German physiologist known for work in the field of nutrition physiology. He was the son of botanist Alexander Bunge
1845 Richard Buchta an Austrian explorer, born in Radlow, Galicia. In 1877 he visited Khartum, where Chinese Gordon, then Governor-General, facilitated his journey to Emin Pasha at Ladó, on the Upper Nile. In 1885 he made another tour through Egypt and through the desert to Fayum. He was a collaborator on the first volume of Wilhelm Junker's work on Africa and published the following works: Die obern Nilländer, etc., with 160 photographic views ; Der Sudan und der Mahdi, Das Land, die Bewohner und der Aufstand ; and Der Sudan unter ägyptischer Herrschaft
1848 John Fitzwilliam Stairs an entrepreneur and statesman, born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, a member of the prominent Stairs family of merchants and shippers founded by William Machin Stairs that included the Victorian era explorer, William Grant Stairs.
1848 Matthew Webb the first recorded person to swim the English Channel without the use of artificial aids. On 25 August 1875, he swam from Dover to Calais in less than 22 hours