Born on January 2

1403 Basilios Bessarion one of the illustrious Greek scholars who contributed to the great revival of letters in the 15th century. He has been mistakenly known also as Johannes Bessarion due to an erroneous interpretation of Gregory III Mammas
1462 Piero di Cosimo an Italian Renaissance painter.
1601 Tokugawa Yoshinao a Japanese daimyo of the early Edo period.
1631 Anthonie van Borssom a Dutch Golden Age landscape painter.
1642 Mehmed IV the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687. Taking the throne at age six, his reign was significant as he changed the nature of the Sultan's position forever by giving up most of his executive power to his Grand Vizier
1652 Jean Louis Petitot the eldest son of Jean Petitot, and was instructed in enameling by his father. Some of his works so closely resemble those of the elder Petitot that it is difficult to distinguish between them, and he was really the only serious rival his father ever had. He settled for a while in London, where he remained till 1682, and painted many enamel portraits of Charles In 1682 he removed to Paris, but in 1695 was back again in London, where he remained until his death
1652 Sir Gilbert Heathcote 1st Baronet a Governor of the Bank of England and Lord Mayor of London in the early 18th Century.
1652 Michel Chamillart a French statesman, a minister of King Louis XIV of France.
1713 Marie Dumesnil a French actress.
1719 Jacques-Alexandre Laffon de Ladebat one of the most important shipbuilders and merchants of the port of Bordeaux in the late 18th century. His son, André-Daniel Laffon de Ladebat , succeeded him, then became involved in politics in the French Revolution in 1789
1721 John Manners Marquess of Granby the eldest son of the 3rd Duke of Rutland. As he did not outlive his father, he was known by his father's subsidiary title, Marquess of Granby. Granby served in the Seven Years' War as overall commander of the British troops on the battlefield and was subsequently rewarded with the post of Commander-in-Chief of the Forces. He was popular with his troops and many public houses are still named after him today
1723 David Ruhnken a Dutch classical scholar of German origin.
1727 James Wolfe a British Army officer, known for his training reforms but remembered chiefly for his victory over the French at the Battle of Quebec in Canada in 1759. The son of a distinguished general, Lieutenant-General Edward Wolfe, he had received his first commission at a young age and saw extensive service in Europe where he fought during the War of the Austrian Succession. His service in Flanders and in Scotland, where he took part in the suppression of the Jacobite Rebellion, brought him to the attention of his superiors. The advancement of his career was halted by the Peace Treaty of 1748 and he spent much of the next eight years on garrison duty in the Scottish Highlands. Already a brigade major at the age of eighteen, he was a lieutenant-colonel by the age of twenty-three
1729 Johann Daniel Titius a German astronomer and a professor at Wittenberg.
1732 František Brixi a Czech classical composer of the 18th century. His first name is sometimes given, by reference works, in its Germanic form: Franz
1752 Philip Freneau an American poet, nationalist, polemicist, sea captain and newspaper editor sometimes called the "Poet of the American Revolution".
1754 Franciszek Zabłocki considered the most distinguished Polish comic dramatist and satirist of the Enlightenment period. He descends from an old aristocratic family of Poland with coat of arms Łada. He translated many French comedies, among others those by Molière, but also wrote his own plays concentrating on Polish issues
1765 Charles Hatchett an English chemist who discovered the element niobium.
1767 Bashir Shihab II a Lebanese emir who ruled Lebanon in the first half of the 19th century. Having converted from Sunni Islam, the religion of previous Chehabi Emirs, he was the first and last Maronite ruler of the Emirate of Mount Lebanon
1777 Christian Daniel Rauch a German sculptor. He founded the Berlin school of sculpture, and was the foremost German sculptor of the 19th century
1783 Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg a Danish painter. He was born in Blåkrog in the Duchy of Schleswig , to Henrik Vilhelm Eckersberg, painter and carpenter, and Ingeborg Nielsdatter. He went on to lay the foundation for the period of art known as the Golden Age of Danish Painting, and is referred to as the Father of Danish painting
1784 Ernest I Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha the last sovereign duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and from 1826, the first sovereign duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. He is a patrilineal ancestor and great-great-great-grandfather of Queen Elizabeth II
1795 Sir Thomas Metcalfe 4th Baronet an East India Company civil servant and agent of the Governor General of India at the imperial court of the Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar.
1803 George Henry Calvert an American editor, essayist, dramatist, poet, and biographer. He was the Chair of Moral Philosophy at the newly established College of Arts and Sciences at the University of Baltimore, and in 1854 he served as Mayor of Newport, Rhode Island
1809 Friedrich Wilhelm Jähns a German music scholar, voice teacher, and composer. He is best known for his thematic catalog of the works of Carl Maria von Weber
1810 Alfred Jacob Miller an American painter and sketcher best known for his paintings concerning the northwestern United States.
1816 Shmuel Salant served as the Ashkenazic Chief Rabbi of Jerusalem for almost 70 years. He was a renowned Talmudist and Torah scholar
1817 François Chabas a French egyptologist.
1822 Rudolf Clausius considered one of the central founders of the science of thermodynamics. By his restatement of Sadi Carnot's principle known as the Carnot cycle, he put the theory of heat on a truer and sounder basis. His most important paper, On the Moving Force of Heat, published in 1850, first stated the basic ideas of the second law of thermodynamics. In 1865 he introduced the concept of entropy. In 1870 he introduced the virial theorem which applied to heat
1827 Prince Kraft zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen a Prussian general and military writer during the time of the German Empire.
1830 Henry Kingsley an English novelist, brother of the better-known Charles Kingsley. He was an early exponent of Muscular Christianity in his 1859 work The Recollections Of Geoffrey Hamlyn
1833 Frederick A. Johnson an American politician and a United States Representative from New York.
1834 Vasily Perov a Russian painter and one of the founding members of Peredvizhniki, a group of Russian realist painters.
1835 Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Claus a German zoologist. He was an opponent of the ideas of Ernst Haeckel
1836 Queen Emma of Hawaii queen consort of King Kamehameha IV from 1856 to his death in 1863. She ran for ruling monarch against King Kalākaua but was defeated
1836 Basile Gras General Basile Gras created the Gras rifle for the French Army in 1874 by converting the Mle 1866 Chassepot rifle to fire metallic cartridges. Gras, who was a colonel at the time, played a very important role in the formulation and industrial production of the Lebel rifle. He was an alumnus of Ecole Polytechnique, then a shooting instructor at l'École Normale de Tir at Châlons. Eventually he supervised the three weapon manufacturing facilities at St Etienne, Châtellerault and Tulle. Finally he became Secretary of War for France
1837 Mily Balakirev a Russian pianist, conductor and composer known today primarily for his work promoting musical nationalism and his encouragement of more famous Russian composers, notably Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. He began his career as a pivotal figure, extending the fusion of traditional folk music and experimental classical music practices begun by composer Mikhail Glinka. In the process, Balakirev developed musical patterns that could express overt nationalistic feeling. After a nervous breakdown and consequential sabbatical, he returned to classical music but did not wield the same level of influence as before
1837 Fritz Simrock a German music publisher who inherited a publishing firm from his grandfather Nikolaus Simrock. Simrock is most noted for publishing most of the music of Johannes Brahms and Antonín Dvořák
1838 Jules Brunet a French officer who played an active role in Mexico and Japan, and later became a General and Chief of Staff of the French Minister of War in 1898. He was sent to Japan with the French military mission of 1867, and after the defeat of the Shogun, had an important role in the latter part of Boshin War between the Imperial forces and the Shogun's army
1841 Émile Amagat a French physicist. His doctoral thesis, published in 1872, expanded on the work of Thomas Andrews, and included plots of the isotherms of carbon dioxide at high pressures. Amagat published a paper in 1877 that contradicted the current understanding at the time, concluding that the coefficient of compressibility of fluids decreased with increasing pressure. He continued to publish data on isotherms for a number of different gases between 1879 and 1882, and invented the hydraulic manometer, which was able to withstand up to 3200 atmospheres, as opposed to 400 atmospheres using a glass apparatus. In 1880 he published his Law of Partial Volumes
1848 James Benton Grant an American mining engineer and the third Governor of Colorado from 1883 to 1885. He was born in Russell County, Alabama and died in Excelsior Springs, Missouri
1851 Ludwig von Graff an Austrian zoologist born in Pancsova.
1855 Frank Hadow a former World 1 English tennis player, who won the Wimbledon championship in 1878.
1857 Uryū Sotokichi an early admiral of the Imperial Japanese Navy, active in the Russo-Japanese War, most notably at the Battle of Chemulpo Bay and the Battle of Tsushima. His name has sometimes been transliterated as "Uriu Sotokichi", or "Uriu Sotokitchi", a transliteration of older kana spelling. The spelling is different by current accepted methods of transliteration, but the pronunciation is the same as the modern spelling for Uryū
1857 Viktor Uhlig an Austrian geologist and paleontologist.
1857 M. Carey Thomas an American educator, suffragist, linguist, and second President of Bryn Mawr College.
1858 Josef Kainz an Austrian actor of Hungarian birth. He was highly active in theatres in Austria and Germany from 1873–1910. Revered as one of the greatest actors of the German-speaking theatre, the city of Vienna annually bestowed a theatre award for outstanding acting performance named after him, the Kainz Medal, from 1958 to 1999
1859 Billy Mosforth an English football player who played either as an inside or outside left. Born in Sheffield he played for several Sheffield clubs but the majority of his career was spent at The Wednesday. He later joined Sheffield United, playing in their first season in existence before retiring in 1890. He won nine caps for England between 1877 and 1882, which was a record at the time, scoring three goals for his country
1860 Dugald Campbell Patterson recognized in Vancouver, Burnaby, and New Westminster, British Columbia as a significant pioneer. He arrived in Canada on July 1, 1884 and engaged in the building trade while living in Victoria. In 1894 he moved to Burnaby where he acquired a five acre parcel of land which today forms the north east section of Central Park. Patterson worked as an engineer for Armstrong Morrison & Balfour and later became foreman boilermaker for the Vancouver Engineering Works. He founded Vulcan Iron Works of New Westminster in 1903, was the first postmaster of the Edmonds district in 1909 and was a member of the New Westminster Board of Trade in 1911. He was elected a Burnaby school trustee in 1912, was a director of the British Columbia Electric and Water Heat Company and owned and operated a real estate business where he purchased and developed properties as far away as Barkerville. He also founded and operated an insurance company for many years. Patterson Avenue, which he originally cleared as a trail, and Patterson Station, where he built the original interurban stop along the British Columbia Electric Railway, are named for the family
1860 William Corless Mills a US museum curator.