Died on January 2

827 Adalard of Corbie son of Bernard the son of Charles Martel and half-brother of Pepin; Charlemagne was his cousin.
1096 William de St-Calais a medieval Norman monk, abbot of the abbey of Saint-Vincent in Le Mans in Maine, who was nominated by King William I of England as Bishop of Durham in 1080. During his term as bishop, St-Calais replaced the canons of his cathedral chapter with monks, and began the construction of Durham Cathedral. In addition to his ecclesiastical duties, he served as a commissioner for the Domesday Book. He was also a councilor and advisor to both King William I and his son, King William II, known as William Rufus. Following William Rufus' accession to the throne in 1087, St-Calais is considered by scholars to have been the new king's chief advisor
1105 Theodoric I Count of Montbéliard a Count of Montbéliard, Count of Bar and lord of Mousson and Count of Verdun. He was the son of Louis, Count of Montbéliard, and Sophie, Countess of Bar and Lady of Mousson
1302 Henry I Lord of Mecklenburg ruled Mecklenburg from 1264 to 1275 and from 1299 until his death.
1377 Casimir IV Duke of Pomerania a duke of Pomerania in Pomerania-Stolp since 1374.
1470 Heinrich Reuß von Plauen the 32nd Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving from 1467 to 1470. He was the nephew of the previous Grand Master, Ludwig von Erlichshausen, and a distant relative to the 27th Grand Master, Heinrich von Plauen
1512 Svante Nilsson (regent of Sweden) a Swedish statesman and regent of Sweden 1504 – 2 January 1512.
1514 William Smyth Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield from 1493 to 1496 and then Bishop of Lincoln until his death. He held political offices, the most important being Lord President of the Council of Wales and the Marches. He became very wealthy and was a benefactor of a number of institutions. He was a co-founder of Brasenose College, Oxford and endowed a grammar school in the village of his birth in Lancashire
1529 Radu of Afumați Prince of Wallachia between January 1522 and April 1529. He began his reign with a victory against Mehmed-bey, a pretender to Wallachia's throne. From 1522 to 1525 he battled the Turks, who supported Vladislav al III-lea and Radu Bădica, both claimants of the throne. The inscription on his tombstone lists 20 battles. He was killed by decapitation on 2 January 1529 near Râmnicu Vâlcea, at Cetățuia Church. He was later buried in the Curtea de Argeș Cathedral
1543 Francesco Canova da Milano an Italian lutenist and composer. He was born in Monza, near Milan, and worked for the papal court for almost all of his career. Francesco was heralded throughout Europe as the foremost lute composer of his time. More of his music is preserved than of any other lutenist of the period, and his work continued to influence composers for more than a century after his death
1547 Giovanni Luigi Fieschi a Genoese nobleman, count of Lavagna. He is the subject of the play Fiesco by Friedrich Schiller
1554 João Manuel Prince of Portugal a Portuguese infante , the eighth son of King John III of Portugal by his wife Catherine of Austria, daughter of Philip I of Castile and Joanna of Castile. As the heir to the throne he was styled Prince of Portugal
1557 Pontormo an Italian Mannerist painter and portraitist from the Florentine School. His work represents a profound stylistic shift from the calm perspectival regularity that characterized the art of the Florentine Renaissance. He is famous for his use of twining poses, coupled with ambiguous perspective; his figures often seem to float in an uncertain environment, unhampered by the forces of gravity
1647 Zhang Xianzhong a leader of a peasant revolt from Yan'an, Shaanxi Province and he later conquered Sichuan in the 17th century. His rule in Sichuan was brief and he was killed by the invading Manchu army. He is commonly associated with the massacres in Sichuan which depopulated the region, however the extent of his killings is disputed
1685 Sir Harbottle Grimston 2nd Baronet an English lawyer and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1640 and 1685 and was Speaker in 1660. During the English Civil War he remained a Parliamentarian but was sympathetic to the Royalists
1686 Frederik de Moucheron a Dutch Golden Age landscape painter.
1694 Henry Booth 1st Earl of Warrington a Member of Parliament, Privy Councillor, Protestant protagonist in the Revolution of 1688, Mayor of Chester and author.
1726 Domenico Zipoli an Italian Baroque composer who worked and died in Córdoba. He became a Jesuit in order to work in the Reductions of Paraguay where his musical expertise contributed to develop the natural musical talents of the Guaranis. He is remembered as the most accomplished musician among Jesuit missionaries
1747 Jean-Féry Rebel an innovative French Baroque composer and violinist.
1763 John Carteret 2nd Earl Granville a British statesman and Lord President of the Council from 1751 to 1763; effectively leader of the country when Spencer Compton was Prime Minister.
1770 Joseph Anton Feuchtmayer an important Rococo stuccoist and sculptor, active in southern Germany and Switzerland.
1771 Louis Charles César Le Tellier a French military commander and Marshal of France.
1783 Johann Jakob Bodmer a German-Swiss author, academic, critic and poet.
1801 Johann Kaspar Lavater a Swiss poet and physiognomist.
1803 Franz Ignaz von Beecke a classical music composer born in Wimpfen am Neckar, Germany.
1809 Nikolai Sheremetev a Russian count, the son of Petr Borisovich Sheremetev, notable grandee of the epoch of empresses Anna Ivanovna, Elizabeth Petrovna, and Catherine He was also the grandson of Boris Petrovich Sheremetev.
1816 Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau a French chemist and politician. He is credited with producing the first systematic method of chemical nomenclature
1819 Maria Luisa of Parma Queen consort of Spain from 1788 to 1808 as the wife of King Charles IV of Spain. She was the youngest daughter of Duke Philip of Parma and his wife, Louise-Élisabeth of France, the eldest daughter of King Louis XV
1829 Louis-Simon Auger a French journalist, literary critic and playwright.
1829 Melchiorre Gioia an Italian writer on philosophy and political economy. His name is spelled Gioia in modern Italian
1831 Barthold Georg Niebuhr a Danish-German statesman and historian who became Germany's leading historian of Ancient Rome and a founding father of modern scholarly historiography. Classical Rome caught the admiration of German thinkers. By 1810 Niebuhr was inspiring German patriotism in students at the University of Berlin by his analysis of Roman economics and government. Historians generally view Niebuhr as a leader of the Romantic Era and symbol of German national spirit that emerged after the defeat at Jena. But he was also deeply rooted in the classical spirit of the Age of Enlightenment in his intellectual presuppositions, his use of philologic analysis, and his emphasis on both general and particular phenomena in history
1835 August Friedrich Ernst Langbein a German humor writer.
1836 Mendele Mocher Sforim originally Sholem Yankev Abramovich or J. Abramowitch, was a Jewish author and one of the founders of modern Yiddish and Hebrew literature
1857 Princess Henriette of Nassau-Weilburg a daughter of Prince Charles Christian, Duke of Nassau-Weilburg and Carolina of Orange-Nassau, daughter of William IV, Prince of Orange. Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom is her descendant through her granddaughter, Queen Mary of Teck. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh is her descendant through her granddaughter Princess Alexandra of Saxe-Altenburg, who happens to be the grandmother of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark. Juan Carlos I of Spain is a descendant of her granddaughter Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria, the grandmother of Alfonso XIII of Spain
1857 Andrew Ure a Scottish doctor, scholar, chemist. and early business theorist.
1858 John Forbes Royle born in Kanpur in 1798. Entering the service of the East India Company as assistant surgeon, he devoted himself to studying botany and geology, and made large collections among the Himalaya Mountains. He also investigated the medical properties of the plants of Hindustan and the history of their uses among the native races. The results of these investigations appeared in an essay On the Antiquity of Hindu Medicine. For nearly ten years he held the post of superintendent of the East India Company's botanic garden in the Himalayas at Saharanpur. In 1837 he was appointed to the professorship of materia medica in King's College London, which he held till 1856. From 1838 onwards be conducted a special department of correspondence, relating to vegetable products, at the East India House, and at the time of his death he had just completed there an extensive and valuable museum of technical products from the East Indies. In 1851 he superintended the Indian department of the Great Exhibition. He died at Acton near London on 2 January 1858
1861 Frederick William IV of Prussia the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861. Also referred to as the "romanticist on the throne", he is best remembered for the many buildings he had constructed in Berlin and Potsdam, as well as for the completion of the Gothic Cologne cathedral. In politics, he was a conservative, and in 1849 he rejected the title of German Emperor offered to him by the Frankfurt parliament, considering that it was not in the parliament's gift. In 1857, he suffered a stroke, and was left incapacitated, until his death
1864 Ferdinand-Alphonse Hamelin born in Pont-l'Évêque, Normandy.
1868 John Doyle (artist) a political cartoonist, caricaturist, painter and lithographer.
1873 Bogusław Fryderyk Radziwiłł a Polish nobleman and Prussian military officer and politician. At the time Poland was partitioned, he lived in the Kingdom of Prussia, where he was a member of the Prussian parliament. He attained the rank of general within the Prussian Army
1875 Sofia Kiselyova Potocka - daughter of Stanisław Szczęsny Potocki and Zofia Clavone.
1877 Alexander Bain (inventor) a Scottish inventor and engineer who was first to invent and patent the electric clock. He installed the railway telegraph lines between Edinburgh and Glasgow
1877 Jonathan McCully thus considered one of the Fathers of Canadian Confederation. He did much to promote union through newspaper editorials. For his efforts, he received a Senate appointment. He later became a judge of the Nova Scotia Supreme Court
1879 Caleb Cushing an American diplomat who served as a U.S. Congressman from Massachusetts and Attorney General under President Franklin Pierce
1880 Bronisław Zaleski a Polish and Belarussian political activist, a writer and a publisher.
1884 Johann Gerhard Oncken a pioneer German Baptist preacher, variously referred to as the "Father of Continental Baptists", the "Father of German Baptists" and the "Apostle of European Baptists". Oncken, Gottfried Wilhelm Lehmann , and Julius Wilhelm Köbner were known as the Baptist cloverleaf. G. Oncken helped direct and guide the growth of Baptists throughout Germany and across much of Europe for half a century
1888 Isaac R. Trimble a United States Army officer, a civil engineer, a prominent railroad construction superintendent and executive, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War, most famous for his leadership role in the assault known as Pickett's Charge at the Battle of Gettysburg.
1889 Bartolomé Calvo now Colombia, in 1861 in his role as Inspector General, because no elections were held on that year to the decide the presidency. He also served as Governor of Panama and Ambassador to Ecuador, and worked in a number of newspapers
1892 George Biddell Airy an English mathematician and astronomer, Astronomer Royal from 1835 to 1881. His many achievements include work on planetary orbits, measuring the mean density of the Earth, a method of solution of two-dimensional problems in solid mechanics and, in his role as Astronomer Royal, establishing Greenwich as the location of the prime meridian. His reputation has been tarnished by allegations that, through his inaction, Britain lost the opportunity of priority in the discovery of Neptune
1892 Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages de Bréau a French biologist.