January 2 events in history

366 The Alemanni cross the frozen Rhine River in large numbers, invading the Roman Empire
533 Mercurius becomes Pope John II, the first pope to adopt a new name upon elevation to the papacy
1492 Reconquista: the Emirate of Granada, the last Moorish stronghold in Spain, surrenders
1777 American Revolutionary War: American forces under the command of George Washington repulsed a British attack at the Battle of the Assunpink Creek near Trenton, New Jersey
1788 Georgia becomes the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution
1791 Big Bottom massacre in the Ohio Country, marking the beginning of the Northwest Indian War
1818 The British Institution of Civil Engineers is founded
1833 Reassertion of British sovereignty over the Falkland Islands
1860 The discovery of the planet Vulcan is announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences in Paris, France
1865 Uruguayan War: The Siege of Paysandú ends as Brazilian and Coloradans capture Paysandú, Uruguay
1871 Amadeus I becomes King of Spain
1900 American Statesman and diplomat John Hay announces the Open Door Policy to promote trade with China
1905 Russo-Japanese War: The Russian garrison surrenders at Port Arthur, China
1911 A gun battle in the East End of London left two dead and sparked a political row over the involvement of then-Home Secretary Winston Churchill
1920 The second Palmer Raid takes place with another 6,000 suspected communists and anarchists arrested and held without trial. These raids take place in several U.S. cities
1927 Angered by the anti-clerical provisions of the Mexican Constitution of 1917, Catholic rebels in Mexico rebelled against the government
1935 Bruno Hauptmann goes on trial for the murder of Charles Lindbergh, Jr., infant son of aviator Charles Lindbergh
1941 World War II: German bombing severely damages the Llandaff Cathedral in Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
1942 World War II: Manila, Philippines is captured by Japanese forces
1942 The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) convicts 33 members of a German spy ring headed by Fritz Joubert Duquesne in the largest espionage case in United States history—the Duquesne Spy Ring
1945 World War II: Nuremberg, Germany (in German, Nürnberg) is severely bombed by Allied forces
1949 Luis Muñoz Marín becomes the first democratically elected Governor of Puerto Rico
1955 Panamanian president José Antonio Remón Cantera is assassinated
1959 Luna 1, the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Moon and to orbit the Sun, is launched by the Soviet Union
1963 Vietnam War: The Viet Cong wins its first major victory in the Battle of Ap Bac
1967 Ronald Reagan sworn in as Governor of California
1971 The second Ibrox disaster kills 66 fans at a Rangers-Celtic association football (soccer) match
1974 United States President Richard Nixon signs a bill lowering the maximum U.S. speed limit to 55 MPH in order to conserve gasoline during an OPEC embargo
1975 Bangladeshi Marxist leader Siraj Sikder is arrested and dies while in police custody
1975 A bomb blast at Samastipur, Bihar, India, fatally wounds Minister of Railways Lalit Narayan Mishra
1976 The Gale of January 1976 begins, which results in coastal flooding around the southern North Sea coasts, resulting in at least 82 deaths and US$1.3 billion in damage
1981 One of the largest investigations by a British police force ends when serial killer Peter Sutcliffe, the "Yorkshire Ripper", is arrested in Sheffield, South Yorkshire
1992 Leaders of armed opposition declare the President Zviad Gamsakhurdia deposed during a military coup in Georgia
1993 Sri Lankan Civil War: The Sri Lanka Navy kill 35-100 civilians on the Jaffna Lagoon
1999 A brutal snowstorm smashes into the Midwestern United States, causing 14 inches (359 mm) of snow in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and 19 inches (487 mm) in Chicago, Illinois, where temperatures plunge to -13 °F (-25 °C); 68 deaths are reported
2004 Stardust successfully flies past Comet Wild 2, collecting samples that are returned to Earth
2006 An explosion in a coal mine in Sago, West Virginia traps and kills 12 miners, while leaving one miner in critical condition