Born on January 20

225 Gordian III Roman Emperor from 238 AD to 244 At the age of 13, he became the youngest sole legal Roman emperor throughout the existence of the united Roman Empire. Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and an unnamed Roman Senator who died before 238. Antonia Gordiana was the daughter of Emperor Gordian I and younger sister of Emperor Gordian Very little is known on his early life before his acclamation. Gordian had assumed the name of his maternal grandfather in 238 AD
1029 Alp Arslan the second Sultan of the Seljuk Empire and great-grandson of Seljuk, the eponymous founder of the dynasty. His real name was Muhammad bin Dawud Chaghri, and for his military prowess, personal valour, and fighting skills he obtained the name Alp Arslan, which means "Heroic Lion" in Turkish
1292 Elizabeth of Bohemia (1292–1330) a princess of the Bohemian Přemyslid dynasty who became queen consort of Bohemia as the first wife of King John the Blind. She was the mother of King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV
1436 Ashikaga Yoshimasa the 8th shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate who reigned from 1449 to 1473 during the Muromachi period of Japan. Yoshimasa was the son of the sixth shogun Ashikaga Yoshinori
1488 Sebastian Münster a German cartographer, cosmographer, and a Christian Hebraist scholar. His work, the Cosmographia from 1544, was the earliest German description of the world
1499 Sebastian Franck a 16th-century German freethinker, humanist, and radical reformer.
1554 Sebastian of Portugal King of Portugal and the Algarves from 11 June 1557 to 4 August 1578 and the penultimate Portuguese monarch of the House of Aviz.
1562 Ottavio Rinuccini an Italian poet, courtier, and opera librettist at the end of the Renaissance and beginning of the Baroque eras. In collaborating with Jacopo Peri to produce the first opera, Dafne, in 1597, he became the first opera librettist
1568 Daniel Cramer a German Lutheran theologian and writer from Reetz , Brandenburg. He was an opponent of the Ramists and the Jesuits
1573 Simon Marius a German astronomer. He was born in Gunzenhausen, near Nuremberg, but he spent most of his life in the city of Ansbach
1586 Johann Schein a German composer of the early Baroque era. He was born in Grünhain and died in Leipzig. He was one of the first to import the early Italian stylistic innovations into German music, and was one of the most polished composers of the period
1588 Francesco Gessi an Italian painter of the Baroque period, active mainly in Bologna.
1616 Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski a Polish noble , magnate, outstanding politician and military commander. Lubomirski was a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire SRI. He was the initiator of the Lubomirski Rokosz
1663 Luca Carlevarijs an Italian painter and engraver of landscapes.
1664 Giovanni Vincenzo Gravina an Italian man of letters and jurist. He was born at Roggiano Gravina, a small town near Cosenza, in Calabria
1703 Joseph-Hector Fiocco a Belgian composer and violinist of the high and late Baroque period.
1716 Jean-Jacques Barthélemy a French writer and numismatist.
1716 Charles III of Spain the King of Spain and the Spanish Indies from 1759 to 1788. He was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain, but eldest by his second wife, Elisabeth Farnese. In 1731, the 15-year-old Charles became the Duke of Parma and Piacenza, as Charles I, on the death of his childless granduncle Antonio Farnese
1724 Philippe Henri marquis de Ségur a marshal of France.
1732 Richard Henry Lee an American statesman from Virginia best known for the motion in the Second Continental Congress calling for the colonies' independence from Great Britain. He was a signatory to the Articles of Confederation and his famous resolution of June 1776 led to the United States Declaration of Independence, which Lee signed. He also served a one-year term as the President of the Continental Congress, and was a United States Senator from Virginia from 1789 to 1792, serving during part of that time as one of the first Presidents pro tempore
1734 Robert Morris (financier) a Liverpool-born American merchant who financed the American Revolution and was signatory to the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the United States Constitution. He was elected to the Pennsylvania Assembly, became the Chairman of the Pennsylvania Committee of Safety, and was chosen as a delegate to the Second Continental Congress, where he served as chairman of the "Secret Committee of Trade" and as a member of the Committee of Correspondence
1734 Charles Alexandre de Calonne a French statesman, best known for his involvement in the French Revolution.
1741 Carl Linnaeus the Younger a Swedish naturalist. He is known as Linnaeus filius to distinguish him from his famous father, the systematist Carl Linnaeus
1750 Princess Louise of Denmark (1750–1831) born to Frederick V of Denmark and Louise of Great Britain. Her eldest daughter, Marie of Hesse-Kassel, was the wife of Frederick VI of Denmark
1751 Ferdinand Duke of Parma the Duke of Parma, Plasencia and Guastalla from his father's death on 18 July 1765 until he ceded the duchy to France by the Treaty of Aranjuez on 20 March 1801. He was a member of the Spanish House of Bourbon
1755 Sir Albemarle Bertie 1st Baronet a long-serving and at time controversial officer of the British Royal Navy who saw extensive service in his career but also courted controversy with several of his actions.
1758 Marie-Anne Paulze Lavoisier a French chemist. She was the wife of Antoine Lavoisier , and acted as his laboratory assistant and contributed to his work
1760 Ferdinand Bauer an Austrian botanical illustrator who travelled on Matthew Flinders' expedition to Australia.
1761 Giovanni Domenico Perotti an Italian composer.
1762 Jérôme-Joseph de Momigny a Belgian/French composer and music-theorist.
1773 Theodor von Schön a Prussian statesman who assisted in the liberal reforms in Prussia during the Napoleonic Wars.
1775 André-Marie Ampère generally regarded as one of the main founders of the science of classical electromagnetism, which he referred to as "electrodynamics". The SI unit of measurement of electric current, the ampere, is named after him
1781 Joseph Hormayr Baron zu Hortenburg an Austrian and German statesman and historian.
1782 Archduke John of Austria a member of the Habsburg dynasty, an Austrian field marshal and German Imperial regent.
1783 Friedrich Dotzauer a German cellist and composer.
1785 Theodor Grotthuss a German chemist known for establishing the first theory of electrolysis in 1806 and formulating the first law of photochemistry in 1817. His theory of electrolysis is considered the first description of the so-called Grotthuss mechanism
1796 Jean Baptiste Antoine Guillemin a French botanist.
1798 Anson Jones a doctor, businessman, congressman, and the fourth and last President of the Republic of Texas, sometimes called the "Architect of Annexation".
1801 Alexandre Dechet regarded the author of the lyrics of the Brabançonne, the Belgian national anthem. His pseudonym was Jenneval, possibly named after the drama Jenneval, ou le Barnevelt français of Louis Sébastien Mercier
1804 Eugène Sue a French novelist.
1806 Nathaniel Parker Willis also known as P. Willis, was an American author, poet and editor who worked with several notable American writers including Edgar Allan Poe and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. He became the highest-paid magazine writer of his day. For a time, he was the employer of former slave and future writer Harriet Jacobs. His brother was the composer Richard Storrs Willis and his sister Sara wrote under the name Fanny Fern
1809 Sebastián Iradier Salaverri , a.k.a. Sebastián Yradier, was a Spanish composer
1812 Thomas Meik a British engineer, born in Duddingston, Midlothian.
1820 Alexandre-Émile Béguyer de Chancourtois a French geologist and mineralogist who was the first to arrange the chemical elements in order of atomic weights, doing so in 1862. De Chancourtois only published his paper, but did not publish his actual graph with the proposed arrangement. Although his publication was significant, it was ignored by chemists as it was written in terms of geology. It was Dmitri Mendeleev's table published in 1869 that became most recognized. De Chancourtois was also a professor of mine surveying, and later geology at the École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris. He also was the Inspector of Mines in Paris, and was widely responsible for implementing many mine safety regulations and laws during the time
1820 Wilhelm Paul Corssen a German philologist noted for his work on Latin and Etruscan topics.
1823 Jacques Grenier a Canadian businessman and politician. He was mayor of Montreal
1823 Imre Madách a Hungarian writer, poet, lawyer and politician. His major work is The Tragedy of Man. It is a dramatic poem approximately 4000 lines long, which elaborates on ideas comparable to Goethe's Faust. The author was encouraged and advised by János Arany, one of the most famous of 19th century Hungarian poets
1831 Edward Routh an English mathematician, noted as the outstanding coach of students preparing for the Mathematical Tripos examination of the University of Cambridge in its heyday in the middle of the nineteenth century. He also did much to systematise the mathematical theory of mechanics and created several ideas critical to the development of modern control systems theory
1834 Piet Joubert Commandant-General of the South African Republic from 1880 to 1900.
1834 George D. Robinson an American politician.