Died on January 20

250 Pope Fabian the Bishop of Rome from 10 January 236 to his death in 250, succeeding Anterus. He is famous for the miraculous nature of his election, in which a dove is said to have descended on his head to mark him as the Holy Spirit's unexpected choice to become the next pope. He was succeeded by Cornelius
473 Euthymius the Great an abbot in Palestine venerated in both Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches.
640 Eadbald of Kent King of Kent from 616 until his death in 640. He was the son of King Æthelberht and his wife Bertha, a daughter of the Merovingian king Charibert. Æthelberht made Kent the dominant force in England during his reign and became the first Anglo-Saxon king to convert to Christianity from Anglo-Saxon paganism. Eadbald's accession was a significant setback for the growth of the church, since he retained his indigenous paganism and did not convert to Christianity for at least a year, and perhaps for as much as eight years. He was ultimately converted by either Laurentius or Justus, and separated from his first wife, who had been his stepmother, at the insistence of the church. Eadbald's second wife was Emma, who may have been a Frankish princess. She bore him two sons, Eormenred and Eorcenberht, and a daughter, Eanswith
820 Al-Shafi‘i Abu ʿAbdillah Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi‘i A Muslim jurist, who lived from. Often referred to as 'Shaykh al-Islām' he was one of the four great Imams of which a legacy on juridical matters and teaching eventually led to the Shafi'i school of fiqh named after him. Hence he is often called Imam al-Shafi‘i. :1
842 Theophilos (emperor) the Byzantine Emperor from 829 until his death in 842. He was the second emperor of the Amorian dynasty and the last emperor to support iconoclasm. Theophilos personally led the armies in his lifelong war against the Arabs, beginning in 831
882 Louis the Younger the second eldest of the three sons of Louis II the German and Emma. He succeeded his father as the King of Saxony on 28 August 876 and his elder brother Carloman as King of Bavaria from 880 to 882. He died in 882 and was succeeded in all his territories, which encompassed most of East Francia, by his younger brother, Charles the Fat, already King of Italy and Emperor
1095 Wulfstan (died 1095) the last surviving pre-Conquest bishop and the only English-born bishop after 1075. Wulfstan is a Christian saint
1156 Henry (bishop of Finland) a medieval English clergyman. He came to Sweden with cardinal Nicholas Breakspeare in 1153 and was probably designated to the new Archbishop of Uppsala, but the independent church province of Sweden could be established only in 1164 after the civil war was over, and Henry would have been sent to organize the Church in Finland, where Christians had existed already at least two centuries. According to legends, he entered Finland together with King Eric the Saint of Sweden and died as a martyr, becoming a central figure in the local Roman Catholic Church. However, the authenticity of the accounts of his life, ministry, and death are widely disputed
1191 Frederick VI Duke of Swabia duke of Swabia from 1170 to his death at the siege of Acre. He was born in Modigliana, the third son of Frederick I Barbarossa and Beatrice I, Countess of Burgundy and brother of Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor. Frederick was betrothed to the princess Constance of Hungary, but they never married. He died, aged 24, at Acre
1191 Theobald V Count of Blois Count of Blois from 1151 to 1191. He was son of Theobald II of Champagne and Matilda of Carinthia. Although he was the second son, Theobald inherited Blois , while his elder brother, Henry got the more important county of Champagne
1336 John de Bohun 5th Earl of Hereford born in St Clement's, Oxford to Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford and Elizabeth of Rhuddlan, a daughter of Edward I of England.
1343 Robert King of Naples King of Naples, titular King of Jerusalem and Count of Provence and Forcalquier from 1309 to 1343, the central figure of Italian politics of his time. He was the third but eldest surviving son of King Charles II of Naples the Lame and Maria of Hungary. During his father's lifetime he was styled Duke of Calabria
1375 James IV of Majorca unsuccessfully claimed the thrones of the Kingdom of Majorca and the Principality of Achaea from 1349 until his death. He served as king consort of Naples, as such being excluded from government
1410 Martin of Aragon King of Aragon, Valencia, Sardinia and Corsica and Count of Barcelona from 1396 and King of Sicily from 1409. He failed to secure the accession of his grandson, Frederic, Count of Luna, and with him the rule of the House of Barcelona came to an end
1458 Lazar Branković a Serbian despot, prince of Rascia from 1456 to 1458. He was the third son of Đurađ Branković and his wife Jerina Kantacusina. He was succeeded by his elder brother, despot Stefan III Branković
1464 Duarte de Menezes 3rd Count of Viana a 15th-century Portuguese nobleman and military figure. Duarte de Menezes was the 3rd Count of Viana do Alentejo, 2nd Count of Viana , Lord of Caminha and the first Portuguese captain of Alcácer-Ceguer
1479 John II of Aragon the King of Aragon from 1458 until 1479, and jure uxoris King of Navarre from 1425 until his death. He was the son of Ferdinand I and his wife Eleanor of Alburquerque. John is regarded as one of the most memorable kings of the 15th century
1511 Oliviero Carafa an Italian cardinal and diplomat of the Renaissance. Like the majority of his era's prelates, he displayed the lavish and conspicuous standard of living that was expected of a prince of the Church. In his career he set an example of conscientiousness for his contemporaries and mentored his relative, Giovanni Pietro Carafa, who became Pope Paul IV
1513 Helena of Moscow daughter of Ivan III the Great, Grand Prince of Moscow, and an uncrowned Grand Duchess of Lithuania and Queen of Poland as she would not convert from Eastern Orthodoxy to Catholicism. Her childless marriage to Grand Duke of Lithuania and later King of Poland Alexander Jagiellon was a constant source of tension between the Grand Duchy of Moscow and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Instead of guaranteeing peace, Helena's marriage gave her father Ivan III an excuse to interfere in Lithuanian affairs accusing Alexander of mistreating Helena and repressing Orthodox believers. This became the pretext to renew the Muscovite–Lithuanian War in 1500. The war ended with a six-year truce in 1503; the Grand Duchy of Lithuania lost about a third of its territory. Despite political tensions and religious differences, the marriage was a loving one and the royal couple was close. After her husband's death in 1506, Helena wanted to return to Moscow but was not allowed. When she planned to run away, she was arrested and reportedly poisoned
1515 Ettore Fieramosca an Italian condottiero and nobleman during the Italian Wars. His father was Rainaldo, baron of Rocca d'Evandro, and it is thought that his mother was a noble woman from the Gaetani family of Aragon
1569 Myles Coverdale a 16th-century Bible translator who produced the first complete printed translation of the Bible into English. He served as Bishop of Exeter from 1551 to 1553
1590 Giambattista Benedetti an Italian mathematician from Venice who was also interested in physics, mechanics, the construction of sundials, and the science of music.
1606 Alessandro Valignano a Jesuit missionary born in Chieti, part of the Kingdom of Naples, who helped supervise the introduction of Catholicism to the Far East, and especially to Japan.
1612 Rudolf II Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor , King of Hungary and Croatia , King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria. He was a member of the House of Habsburg
1639 Mustafa I the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1617 to 1618 and from 1622 to 1623.
1664 Isaac Ambrose an English Puritan divine. He graduated with a from Brasenose College, Oxford, on 1624. He obtained the cure of Castleton, Derbyshire in 1627. He was one of king's four preachers in Lancashire in 1631. He was twice imprisoned by commissioners of array. He worked for establishment of Presbyterianism; successively at Leeds, Preston, and Garstang, from whence he was ejected for nonconformity in 1662. He also published religious works
1666 Anne of Austria queen consort of France and Navarre, regent for her son, Louis XIV of France, and a Spanish and Portuguese Infanta by birth. During her regency Cardinal Mazarin served as France's chief minister. Accounts of French court life of her era emphasize her difficult marital relations with her husband Louis XIII, her closeness to her son Louis XIV, and her disapproval of her son's marital infidelity to her niece Maria Theresa
1707 Humphrey Hody an English scholar and theologian.
1707 Leopold Karl von Kollonitsch a cardinal of the Holy Roman Church, Archbishop of Kalocsa and later of Gran, or Esztergom, and Primate of Hungary. Also a count of the Holy Roman Empire, he was a leading figure of the Hungarian Counter-reformation
1709 François de la Chaise a French Jesuit priest, the father confessor of King Louis XIV of France.
1731 Antonio Farnese Duke of Parma the eighth and final Farnese Duke of Parma and Piacenza. He married, in 1727, Enrichetta d'Este of Modena with the intention of begetting an heir; the marriage, however, was childless, leading to the succession of Charles of Spain–whose mother, Elisabeth Farnese, was Antonio's niece–to the ducal throne
1745 Charles VII Holy Roman Emperor Prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor from 24 January 1742 until his death in 1745. A member of the House of Wittelsbach, Charles was notably the first person not born of the House of Habsburg to become emperor in over three centuries
1751 John Hervey 1st Earl of Bristol an English politician.
1767 Étienne de Silhouette a French Controller-General of Finances under Louis XV.
1770 Charles Yorke Lord Chancellor of Great Britain.
1779 David Garrick an English actor, playwright, theatre manager and producer who influenced nearly all aspects of theatrical practice throughout the 18th century and was a pupil and friend of Dr Samuel Johnson. He appeared in a number of amateur theatricals, and with his appearance in the title role of Shakespeare's Richard III audiences and managers began to take notice
1790 John Howard (prison reformer) a philanthropist and the first English prison reformer.
1793 Louis-Michel le Peletier marquis de Saint-Fargeau a French politician.
1798 Christian Cannabich a German violinist, composer, and Kapellmeister of the Classical era. A composer of some 200 works, he continued the legacy of Johann Stamitz and helped turn the Mannheim orchestra into what Charles Burney described as "the most complete and best disciplined in Europe.". The orchestra was particularly noted for the carefully graduated crescendos and diminuendos characteristic of the Mannheim school. Together with Stamitz and the other composers of the Mannheim court, he helped develop the orchestral texture that paved the way for the orchestral treatment of the First Viennese School
1810 Benjamin Chew a fifth-generation American, a Quaker-born legal scholar, a prominent and successful Philadelphia lawyer, head of the Pennsylvania Judiciary System under both Colony and Commonwealth, and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Province of Pennsylvania. Chew was well known for his precision and brevity in making legal arguments as well as his excellent memory, judgment, and knowledge of statutory law. His primary allegiance was to the supremacy of law and constitution
1813 Christoph Martin Wieland a German poet and writer.
1814 Jean-François Pierre Peyron a French Neoclassical painter.
1816 Princess Caroline Louise of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach a princess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin by virtue of her marriage. She was the daughter of Charles Augustus, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach and his wife Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt
1819 Charles IV of Spain King of Spain from 14 December 1788, until his abdication on 19 March 1808.
1820 Frederick V Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg from 1751 to his death landgrave of Hesse-Homburg. He was the son of Frederick IV, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg and Ulrike Louise of Solms-Braunfels , daughter of Frederick William, Prince of Solms-Braunfels
1826 Stanisław Staszic a leading figure in the Polish Enlightenment: a Catholic priest, philosopher, geologist, writer, poet, translator and statesman. A physiocrat, monist, pan-Slavist and laissez-fairist, he supported many reforms in Poland. He is particularly remembered for his political writings during the "Great Sejm" and for his support of the Constitution of 3 May 1791, adopted by that Sejm
1833 Gertrud Elisabeth Mara a German operatic soprano.
1837 John Soane an English architect who specialised in the Neo-Classical style. The son of a bricklayer, he rose to the top of his profession, becoming professor of architecture at the Royal Academy and an official architect to the Office of Works. He received a knighthood in 1831
1841 Minh Mạng the second emperor of the Nguyễn dynasty of Vietnam, reigning from 14 February 1820 until his death, on 20 January 1841. He was a younger son of Emperor Gia Long, whose eldest son, Crown Prince Cảnh, had died in 1801. He was well known for his opposition to French involvement in Vietnam and his rigid Confucian orthodoxy
1841 Jørgen Jørgensen a Danish adventurer during the Age of Revolution. During the Action of 2 March 1808 his ship was captured by the British. In 1809 he sailed to Iceland, declared the country independent from Denmark and pronounced himself its ruler. He was also a prolific writer of letters, papers, pamphlets and newspaper articles covering a wide variety of subjects, and was an associate of the famous botanists Joseph Banks and William Jackson Hooker for a period