Born on January 21

1183 Ardoino da Piacenza an Italian cardinal. Hi first name is listed also as Arduino
1264 Alexander Prince of Scotland the son of Alexander III of Scotland and Margaret of England, and heir to the throne of Scotland. He was the grandson of Henry III of England and Alexander II of Scotland
1277 Galeazzo I Visconti lord of Milan from 1322 to 1327.
1300 Roger de Clifford 2nd Baron de Clifford a member of the Clifford family which held the seat of Skipton from 1310 to 1676. He inherited his title when his father, Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford died at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. His mother was Maud de Clare, eldest daughter of Thomas de Clare, Lord of Thomond and Juliana FitzGerald. Roger was also hereditary High Sheriff of Westmorland
1338 Charles V of France a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1364 to his death.
1610 Elizabeth Fones an early settler in the Massachusetts Bay Colony where her father-in-law John Winthrop served as Governor. Her subsequent behaviour would scandalize the Puritan colony
1611 Krzysztof Opaliński a Polish noble , politician, writer and satirist, Voivode of Poznań and starosta kowelski, śremski, osiecki, międzyłęski.
1659 Adriaen van der Werff an accomplished Dutch painter of portraits and erotic, devotional and mythological scenes. His brother, Pieter van der Werff , was his principal pupil and assistant
1714 Anna Morandi Manzolini an internationally known anatomist and anatomical wax modeler, as lecturer of anatomical design at the University of Bologna.
1721 James Murray (Quebec governor) a British soldier, whose lengthy career included service as colonial administrator and governor of the Province of Quebec and later as Governor of Minorca from 1778 to 1782.
1732 Frederick II Eugene Duke of Württemberg the fourth son of Duke Karl Alexander and Princess Maria Augusta of Thurn and Taxis.
1735 Johann Gottfried Eckard a German pianist and composer.
1738 Ethan Allen a farmer; businessman; land speculator; philosopher; writer; and American Revolutionary War patriot, hero, and politician. He is best known as one of the founders of the U.S. state of Vermont, and for the capture of Fort Ticonderoga early in the American Revolutionary War along with Benedict Arnold
1744 Lorenz Florenz Friedrich von Crell a German chemist. In 1778 he started publishing the first periodical journal focusing on chemistry. The journal had a longer title, but was known simply as Crell's Annalen
1749 Chaim of Volozhin an Orthodox rabbi, Talmudist, and ethicist. Popularly known as "Reb Chaim Volozhiner" or simply as "Reb Chaim", he was born in Volozhin when it was a part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. He died there while it was under the control of the Russian Empire. It is part of present-day Belarus
1751 Manuel Benito de Castro a Neogranadine politician. He became President of the State of Cundinamarca in 1812 in place of Antonio Nariño
1759 François Baillairgé an architect who also pursued painting and wood sculpture.
1763 Augustin Robespierre the younger brother of French Revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre.
1775 Manuel García (tenor) a Spanish opera singer, composer, impresario, and singing teacher.
1782 Afanasy Grigoriev a Russian Neoclassical architect, who worked in Moscow and its suburbs. Grigoriev is remembered for his refined Empire style mansions, completion of Great Ascension Church and assistance to Domenico Giliardi in rebuilding Moscow after the Great Fire of 1812
1791 Padre Davide da Bergamo an Italian monk, famed for his skills as an organist and composer.
1796 Princess Marie of Hesse-Kassel the consort of George, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
1797 Joseph Méry a French writer.
1801 John Batman an Australian grazier, entrepreneur and explorer. He settled in the north-east of the Van Diemen's Land Colony in the 1820s, and later as a leading member of the Port Phillip Association he led an expedition which explored the Port Phillip Bay area on the Australian mainland with a view to establishing a new settlement there. He is best known for his role in the founding of the settlement on the Yarra River which became the city of Melbourne, eventual capital of the new Colony of Victoria, and one of Australia's largest and most important cities
1804 Moritz von Schwind an Austrian painter, born in Vienna. Schwind's genius was lyrical—he drew inspiration from chivalry, folk-lore, and the songs of the people. Schwind died in Pöcking in Bavaria, and was buried in the Alter Südfriedhof in Munich
1804 Eliza R. Snow one of the most celebrated Mormon women of the nineteenth century. A renowned poet, she chronicled history, celebrated nature and relationships, and expounded scripture and doctrine. Snow was married in secret to Joseph Smith as a plural wife and was openly a plural wife of Brigham Young after Smith's death. Snow was the second general president of the Relief Society of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1866 until her death and was the sister of Lorenzo Snow, the church's fifth president
1808 Juan Crisóstomo Torrico President of Peru during a brief period in 1842. At age 34, he was the youngest ever president of Peru
1808 Bronisław Trentowski a Polish "Messianist" philosopher, pedagogist, journalist and Freemason, and the chief representative of the Polish Messianist "national philosophy.".
1810 Pierre Louis Charles de Failly a French general.
1811 Roderich Benedix a German dramatist and librettist, born in Leipzig, where he was educated there at Thomasschule.
1813 John C. Frémont an American military officer, explorer, and politician who became the first candidate of the anti-slavery Republican Party for the office of President of the United States. During the 1840s, when he led four expeditions into the American West, that era's penny press and admiring historians accorded Frémont the sobriquet The Pathfinder
1815 John Bingham an American Republican congressman from the U.S. state of Ohio, judge advocate in the trial of the Abraham Lincoln assassination and a prosecutor in the impeachment trials of Andrew Johnson. He is also the principal framer of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
1815 Daniel McCallum a railroad engineer, general manager of the New York and Erie Railroad and Union Major General during the American Civil War, known as one of early pioneers of management. He set down a set of general principles of management, and is credited for having developed the first modern organizational chart
1820 Egide Walschaerts a Belgian mechanical engineer, best known as the inventor of the Walschaerts valve gear for use in steam locomotives. He was born in Mechelen, Belgium. In 1838 he was recognised as an excellent modeller, presenting his work at a local exhibition in Mechelen. Minister Rogier, who opened the exhibition, was so impressed that he arranged a place for Walschaerts at Liège University
1820 Joseph Wolf a German artist who specialized in natural history illustration. He moved to the British Museum in 1848 and became the preferred illustrator for explorers and naturalists including David Livingstone, Alfred Russel Wallace and Henry Walter Bates. Wolf depicted animals accurately in lifelike postures and is considered one of the great pioneers of wildlife art. Sir Edwin Landseer thought him "...without exception, the best all-round animal artist who ever lived"'
1821 Vincențiu Babeș an ethnic Romanian lawyer, teacher, journalist and politician from the Banat, settled in Vienna, where he married Sophia Goldschneider in 1851.
1824 Stonewall Jackson a Confederate general during the American Civil War, and one of the best-known Confederate commanders after General Robert Lee. His military career includes the Valley Campaign of 1862 and his service as a corps commander in the Army of Northern Virginia under Robert Lee. Confederate pickets accidentally shot him at the Battle of Chancellorsville on May 2, 1863. The general survived with the loss of an arm to amputation, but died of complications from pneumonia eight days later. His death was a severe setback for the Confederacy, affecting not only its military prospects, but also the morale of its army and of the general public. Jackson in death became an icon of Southern heroism and commitment, becoming a mainstay in the pantheon of the "Lost Cause"
1827 Ivan Mikheevich Pervushin a Russian mathematician of the 2nd half of 19th century.
1829 Job Bicknell Ellis a pioneering North American mycologist known for his study of the Ascomycetes, especially the grouping of fungi called the Pyrenomycetes. Born and raised in New York, he worked as a teacher and farmer before developing an interest in mycology. He collected specimens extensively, and together with his wife, prepared 200,000 sets of dried fungal samples that were sent out to subscribers in series between 1878 and 1894. Together with colleagues William Kellerman and Benjamin Matlack Everhart, he founded the Journal of Mycology in 1885, forerunner to the modern journal Mycologia. He described over 4000 species of fungi, and his collection of over 100,000 specimens is currently housed at the herbarium of the New York Botanical Gardens. Ellis had over 100 taxa of fungi named in his honor
1829 Oscar II of Sweden King of Sweden from 1872 until his death and King of Norway from 1872 until 1905. The third son of King Oscar I of Sweden and Josephine of Leuchtenberg, he was a descendant of Gustav I of Sweden through his mother
1839 Caterina Volpicelli an Italian nun, foundress of the Congregation “Ancelle del Sacro Cuore di Gesù”. She was proclaimed Blessed by John Paul II in 2001 and Saint on April 26, 2009 by Pope Benedict XVI
1841 Édouard Schuré a French philosopher, poet, playwright, novelist, music critic, and publicist of esoteric literature.
1842 Agustín Stahl a Puerto Rican medical doctor and scientist with diverse interests in the fields of ethnology, botany, and zoology. He advocated Puerto Rico's independence from Spain
1842 Alferd Packer an American prospector who confessed to cannibalism during the winter of 1873-1874. He and 5 other men attempted to travel through the high mountains of Colorado during the peak of a harsh winter. They ran out of food when the snow became too deep for travel. Alfred confessed to eating some of his companions and using their flesh to survive his trek out of the mountains two months later. He hid from justice for 9 years before being tried and convicted of murder and sentenced to death. Packer won a retrial and was eventually sentenced to 40 years in prison for manslaughter. A biopic of his life, The Legend of Alfred Packer, was made in 1980
1843 Émile Levassor a French engineer and a pioneer of the automobile industry and car racing in France.
1845 Harriet Backer a Norwegian painter who achieved recognition in her own time and was a pioneer among female artists both in the Nordic countries and in Europe generally. She is best known for her detailed interior scenes, communicated with rich colors and moody lighting
1846 Albert Lavignac a French music scholar, known for his essays on theory, and a minor composer.
1846 Pieter Hendrik Schoute a Dutch mathematician known for his work on regular polytopes and Euclidean geometry.
1847 Joseph Achille Le Bel a French chemist. He is best known for his work in stereochemistry. Le Bel was educated at the École Polytechnique in Paris. In 1874 he announced his theory outlining the relationship between molecular structure and optical activity. This discovery laid the foundation of the science of stereochemistry, which deals with the spatial arrangement of atoms in molecules. This hypothesis was put forward in the same year by the Dutch physical chemist Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff and is currently known as Le Bel-van't Hoff rule. Le Bel wrote Cosmologie Rationelle in 1929
1848 Henri Duparc (composer) a French composer of the late Romantic period.