Born on January 22

1263 Ibn Taymiyyah a Sunni Islamic scholar , Sunni Islamic philosopher, Sunni theologian and logician. He lived during the troubled times of the Mongol invasions. He was a member of the school founded by Ahmad ibn Hanbal, and is considered by his followers, along with Ibn Qudamah, as one of the two most significant proponents of Hanbalism; in the modern era, his adherents often refer to the two as "the two sheikhs" and Ibn Taymiyyah in particular as "Sheikh ul-Islam". Ibn Taymiyyah was notable for having sought the return of Sunni Islam to what he viewed as earlier interpretations of the Qur'an and the Sunnah, and is considered to have had considerable influence in contemporary Wahhabism, Salafism, and Jihadism. He is renowned for his fatwa issued against the Mongol rulers declaring jihad by Muslims against them compulsory, on the grounds that they did not follow Sharia and as such were not Muslim, their claims to have converted to Islam notwithstanding. His teachings had a profound influence on the Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, and other later Sunni scholars
1355 William II Marquis of Namur inherited the Marquisate of Namur from his father William I in 1391 and held it until his own death.
1397 Louis Dauphin of France Duke of Guyenne a younger son of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. He was the third child of his parents to hold the title Dauphin of France, holding it from the death of his older brother in 1401, when he was likewise made Duke of Guyenne
1440 Ivan III of Russia a Grand Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of all Rus. Sometimes referred to as the "gatherer of the Russian lands", he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde over the Rus, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. He was one of the longest-reigning Russian rulers in history
1522 Charles II de Valois Duke of Orléans the third son of Francis I and Claude of France.
1552 Walter Raleigh an English aristocrat, writer, poet, soldier, politician, courtier, spy, and explorer and cousin to Sir Richard Grenville. He is also well known for popularising tobacco in England
1561 Francis Bacon an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, essayist, and author. He served both as Attorney General and Lord Chancellor of England. After his death, he remained extremely influential through his works, especially as philosophical advocate and practitioner of the scientific method during the scientific revolution
1572 John Donne an English poet and a cleric in the Church of England. He is considered the pre-eminent representative of the metaphysical poets. His works are noted for their strong, sensual style and include sonnets, love poems, religious poems, Latin translations, epigrams, elegies, songs, satires and sermons. His poetry is noted for its vibrancy of language and inventiveness of metaphor, especially compared to that of his contemporaries. Donne's style is characterised by abrupt openings and various paradoxes, ironies and dislocations. These features, along with his frequent dramatic or everyday speech rhythms, his tense syntax and his tough eloquence, were both a reaction against the smoothness of conventional Elizabethan poetry and an adaptation into English of European baroque and mannerist techniques. His early career was marked by poetry that bore immense knowledge of English society and he met that knowledge with sharp criticism. Another important theme in Donne's poetry is the idea of true religion, something that he spent much time considering and about which he often theorized. He wrote secular poems as well as erotic and love poems. He is particularly famous for his mastery of metaphysical conceits
1573 Sebastian Vrancx a Flemish Baroque painter and etcher of the Antwerp school.
1575 Louis III Cardinal of Guise the third son of Henry I, Duke of Guise and Catherine of Cleves.
1592 Philippe Alegambe a Belgian Jesuit priest and bibliographer.
1592 Pierre Gassendi a French philosopher, priest, scientist, astronomer, and mathematician. While he held a church position in south-east France, he also spent much time in Paris, where he was a leader of a group of free-thinking intellectuals. He was also an active observational scientist, publishing the first data on the transit of Mercury in 1631. The lunar crater Gassendi is named after him
1654 Richard Blackmore remembered primarily as the object of satire and as an example of a dull poet. He was, however, a respected physician and religious writer
1674 Dorothea Marie of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg the wife of Ernst Ludwig I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen. She was the daughter of Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and his first wife, Magdalena Sybille of Saxe-Weissenfels. She married Ernst Ludwig I on the 19 September 1704
1690 Nicolas Lancret born in Paris, and became a brilliant depicter of light comedy which reflected the tastes and manners of French society under the regent Orleans.
1729 Gotthold Ephraim Lessing a German writer, philosopher, dramatist, publicist and art critic, and one of the most outstanding representatives of the Enlightenment era. His plays and theoretical writings substantially influenced the development of German literature. He is widely considered by theatre historians to be the first dramaturg
1733 Philip Carteret a British naval officer and explorer who participated in two of the Royal Navy's circumnavigation expeditions in 1764-66 and 1766-69.
1740 Noah Phelps Maj. Gen. Noah Phelps , was the son of David Phelps and Abigail Pettibone Phelps, and was descended from the English immigrant William Phelps. The family settled in Simsbury, Connecticut before 1750, and General Phelps became an active and influential man. He was a Yale University graduate, a justice of the Peace, judge of Probate for twenty years, and was a Delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1787 to ratify the Federal Constitution
1757 Christian Daniel Beck a German philologist, historian, theologian and antiquarian, one of the most learned men of his time.
1762 Jean-Baptiste Wicar a French Neoclassical painter and art collector.
1763 Johann Gabriel Chasteler de Courcelles a Walloon, born near Mons, Belgium. He entered the military service of Habsburg Austria at an early age and trained as an engineer at the Ingenieurakademie in Vienna. Serving as Chief of Staff to Spleny in the Turkish War from 1788, he won the Ritterkreuz of the Order of Maria Theresa for outstanding bravery at the Battle of Focsani in action against the Ottoman Turks
1764 Juan Vicente Villacorta Díaz a Central American politician. From July 10, 1823 to March 15, 1824 he was a member of the triumvirates that governed the Federal Republic of Central America. From December 13, 1824 to November 1, 1826 he was head of state of El Salvador, while it was a state of the Central American Federation
1773 René Charles Guilbert de Pixérécourt a French theatre director and playwright, active at the Théâtre de la Gaîté and best known for his modern melodramas such as The Dog of Montarges, the performance of which at Weimar roused the indignation of Goethe.
1777 Joseph Hume a Scottish doctor and Radical MP, born in Montrose, Angus.
1779 Stefano Pavesi an Italian composer.
1779 Carl Reinhold Sahlberg a Finno-Swede naturalist, primarily an entomologist specializing in beetles.
1781 François Habeneck a French violinist and conductor.
1782 Franciszek Ksawery Lampi a Polish Romantic painter born in Austria of ethnic Italian background. He was associated with the aristocratic circle of the late Stanisław II Augustus, the last Polish king before the foreign partitions of Poland. Lampi settled in Warsaw around 1815 at the age of 33, and established himself as the leading landscape and portrait artist in Congress Poland soon after Napoleon's defeat in Russia
1783 Henri-Joseph Paixhans a French artillery officer of the beginning of the 19th century.
1788 Lord Byron an English poet and a leading figure in the Romantic movement. Among Byron's best-known works are the lengthy narrative poems Don Juan and Childe Harold's Pilgrimage and the short lyric She Walks in Beauty
1797 Maria Leopoldina of Austria an archduchess of Austria, Empress consort of Brazil and Queen consort of Portugal.
1798 Ciro Menotti an Italian patriot.
1799 Ludger Duvernay born in Verchères, Quebec, Canada.
1802 Richard Upjohn an English-born architect who emigrated to the United States and became most famous for his Gothic Revival churches. He was partially responsible for launching the movement to such popularity in the United States. Upjohn also did extensive work in and helped to popularize the Italianate style. He was a founder and the first president of the American Institute of Architects. His son, Richard Mitchell Upjohn, , was also a well-known architect and served as a partner in his continued architectural firm in New York
1814 Eduard Zeller a German philosopher and academic theologian of the Tübingen School of theology.
1816 Catherine Wolfe Bruce a noted American philanthropist and patroness of astronomy.
1819 Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle an Italian writer and art critic.
1824 Josef Leopold Zvonař a Czech composer, pedagogue, and big music critic.
1826 Friedrich Ueberweg a German philosopher and historian of philosophy.
1826 Thomas Baring 1st Earl of Northbrook a British Liberal politician and statesman. Gladstone appointed him Viceroy of India 1872-1876. His major accomplishments came as an energetic reformer who was dedicated to upgrading the quality of government in the British Raj. He began large scale famine relief, reduced taxes, and overcame bureaucratic obstacles in an effort to reduce both starvation and widespread social unrest. He served as First Lord of the Admiralty between 1880 and 1885
1828 Dora d'Istria a Romanian Romantic writer and feminist of Albanian descent.
1831 Joseph Alfred Slade a stagecoach and Pony Express superintendent, instrumental in the opening of the American West and the archetype of the Western gunslinger.
1831 Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein a minor German prince who became a member of the British Royal Family through his marriage to Princess Helena of the United Kingdom , the fifth child and third daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.
1840 Ernest Wilberforce an Anglican clergyman and bishop. From 1882 to 1896 he was the first Anglican Bishop of Newcastle upon the diocese's creation, and from 1896 to 1907 he was Bishop of Chichester
1843 Friedrich Blass a German classical scholar.
1845 Paul Vidal de la Blache a French geographer. He is considered to be the founder of modern French geography and also the founder of the French School of Geopolitics. He conceived the idea of genre de vie, which is the belief that the lifestyle of a particular region reflects the economic, social, ideological and psychological identities imprinted on the landscape
1848 Eliodoro Villazón a member of the Liberal party and Constitutional President of his country, Bolivia, between 1909 and 1913.
1849 August Strindberg a Swedish playwright, novelist, poet, essayist and painter. A prolific writer who often drew directly on his personal experience, Strindberg's career spanned four decades, during which time he wrote over 60 plays and more than 30 works of fiction, autobiography, history, cultural analysis, and politics. A bold experimenter and iconoclast throughout, he explored a wide range of dramatic methods and purposes, from naturalistic tragedy, monodrama, and history plays, to his anticipations of expressionist and surrealist dramatic techniques. From his earliest work, Strindberg developed innovative forms of dramatic action, language, and visual composition. He is considered the "father" of modern Swedish literature and his The Red Room has frequently been described as the first modern Swedish novel
1850 Karl Litzmann a German World War I general and later Nazi Party member and state politician.
1852 Joshua W. Alexander United States Secretary of Commerce from December 16, 1919 - March 4, 1921 in the administration of President Woodrow Wilson.