Died on January 22

239 Cao Rui the second emperor of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period. His parentage is in dispute: his mother, Lady Zhen, was Yuan Xi's wife, but she later remarried Cao Pi, the first ruler of Wei. Pei Songzhi claimed that Cao Rui was Cao Pi's son, but Lu Bi and Mou Guangsheng stated that he was Yuan Xi's son
628 Anastasius of Persia martyred in 628.
1170 Wang Chongyang a Chinese Taoist and one of the founders of the Quanzhen School in the 12th century during the Song dynasty. He was one of the Five Northern Patriarchs of Quanzhen. He also appears as a character in works of wuxia fiction
1188 Ferdinand II of León King of León and Galicia from 1157 to his death.
1387 Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Elder the first Grand Vizier of Murad I's reign. He was also technically the first in Ottoman history who held the title "Grand Vizier" , the first who had a military background , and the first member of the illustrious Çandarlı family to hold high office. His family was to mark the rise of the Ottoman Empire between 1360 and 1450
1517 Hadım Sinan Pasha an Ottoman statesman and Grand Vizier.
1536 Bernhard Knipperdolling a German leader of the Münster Anabaptists. He was also known as Bernd or Berndt Knipperdollinck or Knypperdollynck; his birth name was van Stockem
1536 John of Leiden an Anabaptist leader from the Dutch city of Leiden. He was the illegitimate son of a Dutch mayor, and a tailor's apprentice by trade
1552 Edward Seymour 1st Duke of Somerset Lord Protector of England during the minority of his nephew King Edward VI , in the period between the death of King Henry VIII in 1547 and his own indictment in 1549.
1557 Archibald Douglas 6th Earl of Angus a Scottish nobleman active during the reigns of James V and Mary, Queen of Scots. He was the son of George, Master of Angus, who was killed at the Battle of Flodden, and succeeded as Earl of Angus on the death of his grandfather, Archibald
1574 Abdallah al-Ghalib the second Saadian sultan of Morocco.
1575 James Hamilton Duke of Châtellerault a regent for Mary, Queen of Scots.
1583 Antoinette de Bourbon a French noblewoman of the House of Bourbon. She was the wife of Claude de Lorraine, Duke of Guise. Through her eldest daughter, Mary of Guise, Queen consort of King James V of Scotland, she was the maternal grandmother of Mary, Queen of Scots
1592 Elisabeth of Austria Queen of France Queen of France from 1570 to 1574 as the wife of King Charles A member of the House of Habsburg, she was the daughter of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, and Maria of Spain.
1599 Cristofano Malvezzi an Italian organist and composer of the late Renaissance. He was one of the most famous composers in the city of Florence during a time of transition to the Baroque style
1649 Alessandro Turchi an Italian painter of the early Baroque, born and active mainly in Verona, and moving late in life to Rome. He also went by the name Alessandro Veronese or the nickname L'Orbetto
1656 Thomas Francis Prince of Carignano an Italian military commander, the founder of the Savoy-Carignano branch of the House of Savoy which reigned as kings of Sardinia from 1831 to 1861, and as kings of Italy from 1861 until the dynasty's deposition in 1946.
1663 Gian Carlo de' Medici an Italian cardinal. He was the second son of Grand Duke Cosimo II of Tuscany and his wife, Maria Maddalena of Austria
1666 Shah Jahan the fifth Mughal Emperor of India. He is also known as Shah Jahan He ruled from 1628 until 1658
1698 Frederick Casimir Kettler Duke of Courland and Semigallia from 1682 to 1698. Frederick Casimir was the son of Jacob Kettler and Louise Charlotte of Brandenburg. In his reign the Duchy lost its geopolitical position and became Sweden, Prussia and Russia's territorial subject of interests
1750 Franz Xaver Josef von Unertl a Bavarian politician.
1761 Charles Louis Auguste Fouquet duc de Belle-Isle a French general and statesman.
1767 Johann Gottlob Lehmann (scientist) a German mineralogist and geologist noted for his work and research contributions to the geologic record leading to the development of stratigraphy.
1779 Claudius Smith a notorious Loyalist guerrilla leader during the American Revolution. He led a band of irregulars who were known locally as the 'cowboys'
1798 Lewis Morris an American landowner and developer from Morrisania, New York. He signed the U.S. Declaration of Independence as a delegate to the Continental Congress from New York
1798 Matija Antun Relković a Croatian writer. Born in the village of Davor in Slavonia as a son of a Military Frontier officer, Relković too enlisted in the Austrian army at the age of 16. He fought in the Seven Years' War until he was captured by Prussians in Wrocław , and spent a few years of rather "relaxed" imprisonment at Frankfurt. Relković's prison years became his Lehrjahre, his educational period: a voracious but unsystematic reader, he studied many works by leading Enlightenment writers , as well as Polish poet Jan Kochanowski's didactic epic Satir- which became the model for his most famous work. After the release, Relković spent a few more years on war campaigns , but eventually sated and bored with military life, he asked and got pension from Austrian emperor Joseph II in the rank of captain, as well as the title of hereditary noble. Having spent the rest of his life as a writer and social reformer, Relković died in Vinkovci, Croatia
1799 Horace-Bénédict de Saussure a Swiss aristocrat, physicist and Alpine traveller, often considered the founder of alpinism, and considered to be the first person to build a successful solar oven.
1817 Fryderyk Józef Moszyński a noble in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. He held the offices of Referendary of Lithuania, Great Secretary of Lithuania and Great Marshal of the Crown
1822 Rudolph Schadow a German sculptor.
1823 Jean-Pierre Count of Montalivet a French statesman and Peer of France. He was the father of Camille Bachasson, 3rd Count of Montalivet, Minister of the Interior under Louis-Philippe
1831 Johan August Sandels a Swedish soldier and politician, being appointed Governor of Norway 1818 and Field Marshal in 1824. He also served as acting Over-Governor of Stockholm in 1815
1837 Juan Bautista Arriaza a Spanish poet and writer.
1840 Johann Friedrich Blumenbach a German physician, naturalist, physiologist, and anthropologist. He was one of the first to explore the study of mankind as an aspect of natural history. His teachings in comparative anatomy were applied to the classification of what he called human races, of which he determined there to be five
1846 Louis-Pierre Baltard a French architect, and engraver.
1850 William Joseph Chaminade a French Catholic priest who survived persecution during the French Revolution and later founded the Society of Mary, usually called the Marianists, in 1817. He was beatified by Pope John Paul II on September 3, 2000, his feast day is celebrated on January 22
1850 Vincent Pallotti an Italian ecclesiastic, born in Rome, and a saint. He was the founder of the Society of the Catholic Apostolate later to be known as Pious Society of Missions. The original name was restored in 1947. He is buried in the church of San Salvatore in Onda. He is considered the forerunner of Catholic Action
1851 Johann Friedrich Heinrich Schlosser a German jurist, writer and translator.
1856 Charles-Victor Prévot vicomte d'Arlincourt a French novelist, born at the Château de Mérantais, Magny-les-Hameaux, Yvelines.
1858 Louis II Grand Duke of Baden the son of Leopold I, Grand Duke of Baden and Sophie of Holstein-Gottorp, Princess of Sweden.
1859 Joseph Ludwig Raabe a Swiss mathematician.
1861 Friedrich Tiedemann a German anatomist and physiologist.
1868 Charles Kean born at Waterford, Ireland, the son of the actor Edmund Kean.
1869 Prince Leopold Duke of Brabant the second child and only son and heir apparent of Leopold II of Belgium and his wife, Archduchess Marie Henriette of Austria.
1876 George Elphinstone Dalrymple an explorer, public servant and politician, member of the Legislative Assembly of Queensland.
1877 Giuseppe De Notaris an Italian botanist generally known for his work with cryptogams native to Italy.
1879 Henry Pulleine an administrator and commander in the British Army in the Cape Frontier and Anglo-Zulu Wars. He held the acting rank of Brevet Lieutenant Colonel
1879 Anthony Durnford a career British Army officer of the Royal Engineers who served in the Anglo-Zulu War. Breveted colonel, Durnford is mainly known for his presence at the defeat of the British Army by the Zulus at the Battle of Isandlwana
1887 Joseph Whitworth an English engineer, entrepreneur, inventor and philanthropist. In 1841, he devised the British Standard Whitworth system, which created an accepted standard for screw threads. Whitworth also created the Whitworth rifle, often called the 'sharpshooter' because of its accuracy and considered one of the earliest examples of a sniper rifle
1889 Carlo Pellegrini an artist who served from 1869 to 1889 as a caricaturist for Vanity Fair magazine, a leading journal of London society. He was born in Capua, then in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. His father came from an ancient land-owning family, while his mother was descended from the Medici. His work for the magazine made his reputation and he became its most influential artist
1890 Lavrenty Zagoskin a Russian naval officer and explorer of Alaska.