Born on January 23

1251 Oddone di Monferrato an Italian papal diplomat and Cardinal. He was of the noble house of Monferrat, son of Marquis Guglielmo VI de Monferrato
1340 Biligtü Khan Ayushiridara a ruler of the Northern Yuan Dynasty in Mongolia. Ascended to the throne after the death of his father who was the last Yuan emperor, he defeated the invading Ming army in 1372 and recaptured some Chinese borderlands that were previously lost to the newly founded Ming Dynasty
1350 Vincent Ferrer a Valencian Dominican friar, who gained acclaim as a missionary and a logician. He is honored as a saint of the Roman Catholic Church
1378 Louis III Elector Palatine an Elector Palatine of the Rhine from the house of Wittelsbach in 1410–1436.
1513 Hai Rui a Chinese official of the Ming Dynasty. In China he is remembered as a model of honesty and integrity in office. A play based on his career, Hai Rui Dismissed from Office, gained political significance in the 1960s during the Cultural Revolution
1673 Duchess Violante Beatrice of Bavaria Grand Princess of Tuscany as the wife of Grand Prince Ferdinando of Tuscany and Governor of Siena from 1717 until her death. Born a Duchess of Bavaria, the youngest child of Elector Ferdinand Maria, she married the heir to the Tuscan throne, Ferdinando de' Medici, in 1689. Violante Beatrice loved him but Ferdinando did not return her affection, declaring her too ugly and too dull. Her brother-in-law, Prince Gian Gastone, befriended her out of sympathy, a friendship that lasted until Violante Beatrice's demise
1688 Ulrika Eleonora Queen of Sweden queen regnant of Sweden from 5 December 1718 to 29 February 1720, and then queen consort until her death.
1693 Georg Bernhard Bilfinger born at Cannstatt in the Duchy of Württemberg.
1719 John Landen an English mathematician.
1734 Wolfgang von Kempelen an author and inventor, known for his chess-playing "automaton" hoax The Turk and for his speaking machine.
1737 John Hancock a merchant, smuggler, statesman, and prominent Patriot of the American Revolution. He served as president of the Second Continental Congress and was the first and third Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. He is remembered for his large and stylish signature on the United States Declaration of Independence, drawn so that King George III would be able to read the Hancock name; so much so that the term "John Hancock" has become, in the United States, a synonym for a signature
1745 William Jessop an English civil engineer, best known for his work on canals, harbours and early railways in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
1751 Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz a Baltic German writer of the Sturm und Drang movement.
1762 Christian August Vulpius a German novelist and dramatist. His sister married the noted German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
1775 Pietro Colletta a Neapolitan general and historian, entered the Neapolitan artillery in 1796 and took part in the campaign against the French in 1798.
1778 Alire Raffeneau Delile a French botanist.
1780 Georgios Karaiskakis a famous Greek klepht, armatolos, military commander, and a hero of the Greek War of Independence.
1783 Stendhal a 19th-century French writer. Known for his acute analysis of his characters' psychology, he is considered one of the earliest and foremost practitioners of realism, as is evident in the novels Le Rouge et le Noir and La Chartreuse de Parme
1786 Auguste de Montferrand a French Neoclassical architect who worked primarily in Russia. His two best known works are the Saint Isaac's Cathedral and the Alexander Column in Petersburg
1790 Johann Jakob Heckel an Austrian taxidermist, zoologist, and ichthyologist from Mannheim in the Electoral Palatinate.
1794 Eduard Friedrich Eversmann a biologist and explorer.
1796 Karl Ernst Claus a Baltic German chemist and naturalist. Claus was a professor at Kazan State University and a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He was primarily known as a chemist and discoverer of the chemical element ruthenium, but also as one of the first scientists who applied quantitative methods in botany
1809 Hermann Guido von Samson-Himmelstjerna a Baltic German physician and professor of Staatsarzneikunde.
1809 Veer Surendra Sai an Indian freedom fighter who sacrificed his life fighting against the British and died in obscurity. Surendra Sai has a demi-god status in Western Odisha region. Surendar Sai and his associates Madho Singh, Kunjal Singh, Airi Singh, Bairi Sing, Uddant Sai, Ujjal Sai, Khageswar Dao, Salegram Bariha, Govind Singh, Pahar Singh, Rajee Ghasia, Kamal Singh, Hati Singh, Salik Ram Bariha, Loknath Panda/Gadtia, Mrutunjaya Panigrahi, Jagabandu Hota, Padmanave Guru, Trilochan Panigrahi and many others resisted the British and successfully protected most parts of Western Odisha region for some time from the British rule. Most of them died unnoticed fighting for freedom from the British. Many of them were hanged by the British; a few died in the Cellular Jail in the Andamans. Surendar Sai himself died in Asirgarh Jail on 28 February 1884
1813 Camilla Collett a Norwegian writer, often referred to as the first Norwegian feminist. She was also the younger sister of Norwegian poet Henrik Wergeland, and is recognized as being one of the first contributors to realism in Norwegian literature. Her younger brother was Major General Joseph Frantz Oscar Wergeland
1814 Alexander Cunningham a British army engineer with the Bengal Engineer Group who later took an interest in the history and archaeology of India which led to his appointment in 1861 to the newly created position of archaeological surveyor to the government of India. He founded and organized what later became the Archaeological Survey of India. He wrote numerous books and monographs and made massive collections of artefacts. Some of his collections were lost but most of the gold and silver coins in his collection were bought by the British Museum. Two of his brothers, Francis Cunningham and Joseph Cunningham became well known for their work in British India while another, Peter Cunningham, became famous for his Handbook of London
1820 Alexander Serov a Russian composer and music critic. He is notable as one of the most important music critics in Russia during the 1850s and 1860s and as the most significant Russian composer of opera in the period between Dargomyzhsky's Rusalka and the early operas by Cui, Rimsky-Korsakov, Mussorgsky, and Tchaikovsky
1822 Regine Olsen a Danish woman who was engaged to the philosopher and theologian Søren Kierkegaard from September 1840 to October 1841. Regine's relationship with Kierkegaard exerted a crucial influence over his intellectual development, philosophy, and theology, and the legacy of their engagement figures prominently in his writings
1822 Heinrich Brunn a German archaeologist. He was known for taking a scientific approach in his investigations of classical Greek and Roman art
1825 Louis Ehlert a German composer and music critic.
1826 Edward Byles Cowell a noted translator of Persian poetry and the first professor of Sanskrit at Cambridge University.
1828 Saigō Takamori one of the most influential samurai in Japanese history, living during the late Edo Period and early Meiji Era. He has been dubbed the last true samurai. He was born Saigō Kokichi , and received the given name Takamori in adulthood. He wrote poetry under the name Saigō Nanshū. His younger brother was Gensui The Marquis Saigō Tsugumichi
1830 Gaston Alexandre Auguste Marquis de Galliffet a French general, best known for having taken part in the repression of the 1871 Paris Commune. He was Minister of War in Waldeck-Rousseau's cabinet at the turn of the century, which caused a controversy in the socialist movement since independent socialist Alexandre Millerand also took part in the same government, and was thus side by side with the Fusilleur de la Commune
1830 Ivan Larionov a Russian composer, writer and folklorist. He is mostly remembered for the famous song "Kalinka", that he wrote in 1860
1832 Édouard Manet a French painter. He was one of the first 19th-century artists to paint modern life, and a pivotal figure in the transition from Realism to Impressionism
1833 Muthu Coomaraswamy a prominent colonial era legislator from Sri Lanka. He was the first native Asian and Sri Lankan to be knighted by Queen Victoria
1833 Lewis Morris (poet) a popular poet of the Anglo-Welsh school. Born in Carmarthen, Carmarthenshire in south-west Wales to Lewis Edward William Morris and Sophia Hughes, he first attended Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School there.Then in 1847 he transferred to Cowbridge Grammar School on the appointment to it of the energetically reviving and academically gifted young headmaster, Hugo Harper. There "he gave promise of his future classical scholarship by writing a prize poem on Pompeii". In 1850 he was one of about thirty Cowbridge boys who followed Harper to Sherborne whither the latter was bound on a similar mission of resuscitating a moribund school. Such "swarming" in the wake of a charismatic headmaster was typical of the period. Morris and Harper remained lifelong friends. He studied classics at Jesus College, Oxford, graduating in 1856: the first student in thirty years to obtain first-class honours in both his preliminary and his final examinations. He then became a lawyer. In 1868 he married Florence Pollard. He was knighted by Queen Victoria in 1895, and narrowly missed being appointed Poet Laureate, possibly because of his association with Oscar Wilde. One of his most famous poems is "Love's Suicide"
1833 Apollinary Goravsky a Belarusian painter.
1835 August Lanner an Austrian composer, the son of the better-known Josef Lanner. He was first educated at the Anna-Schule but received no music instruction at that time. His earliest music education was first provided by his uncle, the K.k Hofopernkapellmeister Josef Strebinger in harmony and later took instructions in composition with the Viennese composer Josef Hellmesberger and also Professor Josef Mayseder. Among his first efforts at musical composition is a waltz which did not survive obscurity
1838 Marianne Cope a German-born American who was a member of the Sisters of Saint Francis of Syracuse, New York. Known for her charitable works and virtuous deeds, she spent many years caring for lepers on the island of Molokaʻi in Hawaiʻi. Despite direct contact with the patients over many years, Cope was not afflicted by the disease, which some faithful consider miraculous
1840 Ernst Abbe a German physicist, optical scientist, entrepreneur, and social reformer. Together with Otto Schott and Carl Zeiss, he laid the foundation of modern optics. Abbe developed numerous optical instruments. He was a co-owner of Carl Zeiss AG, a German manufacturer of research microscopes, astronomical telescopes, planetariums and other optical systems
1841 Benoît-Constant Coquelin a French actor, "one of the greatest theatrical figures of the age.".
1841 Sigismund Bachrich a Hungarian composer of Jewish origin, violinist, and violist.
1844 Duke Elimar of Oldenburg a duke of Oldenburg.
1844 Paul Brousse a French socialist, leader of the possibilistes group. He was active in the Jura Federation, a section of the International Working Men's Association , from the northwestern part of Switzerland and the Alsace. He helped edit the Bulletin de la Fédération Jurassienne, along with anarchist Peter Kropotkin. He was in contact with Gustave Brocher between 1877 and 1880, who became anarchist under Brousse's influence. Paul Brousse edited two newspapers, one in French and another in German. He helped James Guillaume publish its bulletin
1846 Hermann Clemenz an Estonian chess master.
1846 Nikolay Umov a Russian physicist and mathematician known for discovering the concept of Umov-Poynting vector and Umov effect.
1847 Niko I Dadiani the last ruling prince of the Western Georgian Principality of Megrelia in southeast Europe. After Russia's formal abolition of his principality , he served as a general in the Imperial Russian Army
1855 John Browning an American firearms designer who developed many varieties of military and civilian firearms, cartridges, and gun mechanisms, many of which are still in use around the world. He is regarded as one of the most successful firearms designers of the 20th century, in the development of modern automatic and semi-automatic firearms, and is credited with 128 gun patents. He made his first firearm at age 13 in his father's gun shop, and was awarded his first patent on October 7, 1879 at the age of 24
1857 Andrija Mohorovičić a Croatian meteorologist and seismologist. He is best known for the eponymous Mohorovičić discontinuity and is considered a founder of modern seismology