Died on January 23

667 Ildefonsus a scholar and theologian who served as the metropolitan bishop of Toledo for the last decade of his life. His Gothic name was Hildefuns. Although his writings were less influential outside of Hispania, Ildefonsus was canonised and remained a potent force in the peninsula for centuries. Spanish and Portuguese missionaries spread his cult worldwide
1002 Otto III Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor from 996 until his early death in 1002. A member of the Ottonian dynasty, Otto III was the only son of the Emperor Otto II and his wife Theophanu
1160 Fujiwara no Michinori also known as Shinzei , an aristocratic Confucian scholar and Buddhist monk in late Heian period Japan. He was one of the chief advisors to Emperor Nijō, and one of the chief allies of Taira no Kiyomori, particularly during the Heiji Rebellion of 1159
1180 Eberhard I Count of Berg-Altena Berg, count of Altena , son of Adolf IV, Count of Berg and Altena.
1199 Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur the third Almohad Caliph. Succeeding his father, al-Mansur reigned from 1184 to 1199. His reign was distinguished by the flourishing of trade, architecture, philosophy and the sciences, as well as by victorious military campaigns in which he was able to temporarily stem the tide of Christian Reconquista in the Iberian Peninsula
1220 Bogislaw II Duke of Pomerania Duke of Pomerania-Stettin from 1187 until his death.
1252 Isabella Queen of Armenia the queen regnant of Cilician Armenia.
1297 Florent of Hainaut Prince of Achaea from 1289 to his death, in right of his wife, Isabella of Villehardouin. He was the son of John I of Avesnes and Adelaide of Holland. From his father he received the stadholdership of Zeeland
1312 Isabella of Villehardouin the elder daughter of William II of Villehardouin, Prince of Achaea, and of his second wife Anna, the third daughter of Michael II Komnenos Doukas, the despot of Epiros.
1348 Charles Duke of Durazzo a Neapolitan nobleman, the eldest son of John, Duke of Durazzo and Agnes de Périgord.
1374 Antonia of Baux the second Queen consort of Frederick III, King of Sicily.
1512 Vlad cel Tânăr the Prince of Wallachia. He took the throne from Mircea III Dracul on the 8th of April in 1510 with the help of Mehmet the Ottoman and with the support of the Craiovești family. In exchange, the prince vowed protection to Mehmet and his family and Parvu Craiovescu, member of the Craiovești family, became the head of the Divan of Wallachia. Parvu was then followed by Danciu and in 1511, by Bogdan, the Prince's brother-in-law
1516 Ferdinand II of Aragon in his own right the King of Sicily from 1468 and King of Aragon from 1479. As a consequence of his marriage to Isabella I, he was King of Castile jure uxoris as Ferdinand V from 1474 until her death in 1504. He was recognised as regent of Castile for his daughter and heir, Joanna, from 1508 until his own death. In 1504, after a war with France, he became King of Naples as Ferdinand III, reuniting Naples with Sicily permanently and for the first time since 1458. In 1512, he became King of Navarre by conquest after asserting a hereditary claim
1548 Bernardo Pisano an Italian composer, priest, singer, and scholar of the Renaissance. He was one of the first madrigalists, and the first composer anywhere to have a printed collection of secular music devoted entirely to himself
1549 Johannes Honter a Transylvanian Saxon, renaissance humanist and theologian. Honter is best known for his geographic and cartographic publishing activity, as well as for implementing the Lutheran reform in Transylvania
1567 Jiajing Emperor the 11th Ming dynasty Emperor of China who ruled from 1521 to 1567. Born Zhu Houcong, he was the former Zhengde Emperor's cousin. His father, Zhu Youyuan , the Prince of Xing, was the fourth son of the Cheng-hua emperor and the eldest son of three sons born to the emperor's concubine, Lady Shao
1570 James Stewart 1st Earl of Moray Regent of Scotland for his nephew, the infant King James VI of Scotland, from 1567 until his assassination in 1570. Until 1562 he was known as Lord James, and his title was Lord Abernethy
1622 William Baffin an English navigator and explorer. Nothing is known of his early life, but it is conjectured that he was born in London of humble origin, and gradually raised himself by his diligence and perseverance. Britannica 11th Edition gives a year of birth as 1584, but this is simply a guess, without any documentary basis
1628 Dawar the ruler of the Moghul Empire for a short time between 1627-1628, immediately after the death of his grandfather Jahangir. It was the title given to 'Bulaki' on his accession to the Moghul throne. He was the grandson of Jahangir, the eldest son of Prince Khusuru, who was killed in 1622, at the behest of Prince Khurram , for rebelling against his father Jahangir
1648 Francisco de Rojas Zorrilla a Spanish dramatist. The main pieces of Rojas Zorrilla are Del rey abajo ninguno and No hay padre siendo rey
1654 Thomas Willeboirts Bosschaert a Dutch-born Flemish Baroque painter.
1662 John Kemény (prince) a Hungarian aristocrat, writer and prince of Transylvania.
1698 Ernest Augustus Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled over the Principality of Calenberg subdivision of the duchy. He was appointed prince-elector, but died before the appointment became effective. He was also Administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück
1708 Frederick II Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg. He was also a successful and experienced general for the crowns of both Sweden and of Brandenburg, but is best remembered as the eponymous hero of Heinrich von Kleist's play Der Prinz von Homburg
1722 Henri de Boulainvilliers a French nobleman, writer and historian. Educated at the college of Juilly, he served in the army until 1697
1744 Giambattista Vico an Italian political philosopher, rhetorician, historian, and jurist. He criticized the expansion and development of modern rationalism and was an apologist of classical antiquity. Vico is best known for his magnum opus, the Scienza Nuova of 1725, often published in English as New Science
1746 Peter Zorn a German librarian and philologist and Protestant theologian.
1763 Johann Hieronymus Kniphof a German physician and botanist.
1773 Manuel Pinto da Fonseca a Knight of the Langue of Portugal in the Order of Malta, of which he also was the 68th Prince and Grand Master from 1741 until his death. He was a Portuguese nobleman, the son of Miguel Álvaro Pinto da Fonseca, Alcaide-Mór de Ranhados, and his wife, Ana Pinto Teixeira
1785 Matthew Stewart (mathematician) a Scottish mathematician and minister of religion.
1789 Frances Brooke an English novelist, essayist, playwright and translator.
1789 John Cleland an English novelist best known as the author of Fanny Hill: or, the Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure.
1800 Edward Rutledge an American politician, a slaveholder and youngest signer of the United States Declaration of Independence. He later served as the 39th Governor of South Carolina
1800 Gottlieb Stephanie an Austrian playwright, director and librettist, most famously to Mozart. Stephanie was born in Breslau, Prussia, but came to Vienna during the Seven Years' War as a Prussian prisoner of war. He was appointed to head the National Singspiel, a favourite project of Emperor Joseph He died in Vienna, aged 58
1803 Arthur Guinness an Irish brewer and the founder of the Guinness brewery business and family. He was also an entrepreneur, visionary and philanthropist
1805 Claude Chappe a French inventor who in 1792 demonstrated a practical semaphore system that eventually spanned all of France. This was the first practical telecommunications system of the industrial age, making Chappe the first telecom mogul with his "mechanical internet."
1806 William Pitt the Younger a British politician of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. He became the youngest Prime Minister in 1783 at the age of 24. He left office in 1801, but was Prime Minister again from 1804 until his death in 1806. He was also the Chancellor of the Exchequer throughout his premiership. He is known as "the Younger" to distinguish him from his father, William Pitt the Elder, who had previously served as Prime Minister
1810 Johann Wilhelm Ritter a German chemist, physicist and philosopher. He was born in Samitz near Haynau in Silesia , and died in Munich
1811 Pedro Caro 3rd Marquis of la Romana a Spanish general of the Peninsular War.
1811 Leonardo Antonelli an Italian Cardinal in the Roman Catholic Church.
1812 Robert Craufurd a Scottish soldier. After a military career which took him from India to the Netherlands, he was given command of the Light Division in the Napoleonic Peninsular War under the Duke of Wellington. Craufurd was a strict disciplinarian and somewhat prone to violent mood swings which earned him the nickname "Black Bob". He was mortally wounded storming the lesser breach in the Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo on 19 January 1812 and died four days later
1820 Prince Edward Duke of Kent and Strathearn the fourth son of King George III of the United Kingdom and the father of Queen Victoria. Recently he has been styled the "Father of the Canadian Crown."
1827 Domenico Alberto Azuni an Italian jurist.
1833 Edward Pellew 1st Viscount Exmouth a British naval officer. He fought during the American War of Independence, the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. His younger brother, Israel Pellew, also pursued a naval career
1839 John Elley a British soldier who joined the cavalry as a private, and rose to general officer rank. He fought with distinction during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, and later served as Governor of Galway and as Colonel of the 17th Lancers
1843 Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué a German writer of the romantic style.
1846 Barlaam of Chikoy a Russian Orthodox Church hermit and celibate priest famous for his missionary activities in Transbaikal, the founder of John the Precursor's secluded monastery in the Chikoy Mounts. He is venerated as a local saint
1849 Marie-François Auguste de Caffarelli du Falga a French général de division of Italian descent. Two of his brothers were also generals. His name is inscribed on the south side of the Arc de Triomphe
1854 Robert Montgomery Bird an American novelist, playwright, and physician.
1856 Nikolai Nadezhdin a Russian literary critic and Russia's first ethnographer.