January 23 events in history

393 Roman Emperor Theodosius I proclaims his eight-year old son Honorius co-emperor
971 In China, the war elephant corps of the Southern Han are soundly defeated at Shao by crossbow fire from Song Dynasty troops
1368 In a coronation ceremony, Zhu Yuanzhang ascends to the throne of China as the Hongwu Emperor, initiating Ming Dynasty rule over China that would last for three centuries
1546 Having published nothing for eleven years, François Rabelais publishes the Tiers Livre, his sequel to Gargantua and Pantagruel
1556 The deadliest earthquake in history, the Shaanxi earthquake, hits Shaanxi province, China. The death toll may have been as high as 830,000
1570 James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray, regent for the infant King James VI of Scotland, is assassinated by firearm, the first recorded instance of such
1571 The Royal Exchange opens in London
1579 The Union of Utrecht forms a Protestant republic in the Netherlands
1656 Blaise Pascal publishes the first of his Lettres provinciales
1719 The Principality of Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire
1789 Georgetown College, the first Catholic University in the United States, is founded in Georgetown, Maryland (now a part of Washington, D.C.)
1793 Second Partition of Poland
1849 Elizabeth Blackwell is awarded her M.D. by the Geneva Medical College of Geneva, New York, becoming the United States' first female doctor
1855 The first bridge over the Mississippi River opens in what is now Minneapolis, Minnesota, a crossing made today by the Hennepin Avenue Bridge
1870 In Montana, U.S. cavalrymen kill 173 Native Americans, mostly women and children, in what becomes known as the Marias Massacre
1879 Anglo-Zulu War: the Battle of Rorke's Drift ends
1897 Elva Zona Heaster is found dead in Greenbrier County, West Virginia. The resulting murder trial of her husband is perhaps the only case in United States history where the alleged testimony of a ghost helped secure a conviction
1899 The Malolos Constitution is inaugurated, establishing the First Philippine Republic
1899 Emilio Aguinaldo is sworn in as President of the First Philippine Republic
1900 Second Boer War: The Battle of Spion Kop between the forces of the South African Republic and the Orange Free State and British forces ends in a British defeat
1904 Ålesund Fire: the Norwegian coastal town Ålesund is devastated by fire, leaving 10,000 people homeless and one person dead. Kaiser Wilhelm II funds the rebuilding of the town in Jugendstil style
1909 RMS Republic, a passenger ship of the White Star Line, becomes the first ship to use the CQD distress signal after colliding with another ship, the SS Florida, off the Massachusetts coastline, an event that kills six people. The Republic sinks the next day
1912 The International Opium Convention is signed at The Hague
1920 The Netherlands refuses to surrender the exiled Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany to the Allies
1937 In Moscow, 17 leading Communists go on trial accused of participating in a plot led by Leon Trotsky to overthrow Joseph Stalin's regime and assassinate its leaders
1941 Charles Lindbergh testifies before the U.S. Congress and recommends that the United States negotiate a neutrality pact with Adolf Hitler
1942 World War II: The Battle of Rabaul begins, the first fighting of the New Guinea campaign
1943 Duke Ellington plays at Carnegie Hall in New York City for the first time
1943 World War II: Troops of Montgomery's 8th Army capture Tripoli in Libya from the German-Italian Panzer Army
1943 World War II: Australian and American forces finally defeat the Japanese army in Papua
1943 World War II: The Battle of Mount Austen, the Galloping Horse, and the Sea Horse on Guadalcanal during the Guadalcanal campaign ends
1945 World War II: German admiral Karl Dönitz launches Operation Hannibal
1950 The Knesset passes a resolution that states Jerusalem is the capital of Israel
1957 American inventor Walter Frederick Morrison sells the rights to his flying disc to the Wham-O toy company, which later renames it the "Frisbee"
1958 After a general uprising and rioting in the streets, President Marcos Pérez Jiménez leaves Venezuela
1960 The bathyscaphe USS Trieste breaks a depth record by descending to 10,911 metres (35,797 ft) in the Pacific Ocean
1961 The Portuguese luxury cruise ship Santa Maria is hijacked by opponents of the Estado Novo regime with the intention of waging war until dictator António de Oliveira Salazar is overthrown
1963 The Guinea-Bissau War of Independence officially begins when PAIGC guerrilla fighters attack the Portuguese army stationed in Tite
1964 The 24th Amendment to the United States Constitution, prohibiting the use of poll taxes in national elections, is ratified
1967 Milton Keynes (England) is founded as a new town by Order in Council, with a planning brief to become a city of 250,000 people. Its initial designated area enclosed three existing towns and twenty one villages
1967 Diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and Côte d'Ivoire are established
1968 North Korea seizes the USS Pueblo, claiming the ship had violated its territorial waters while spying
1973 President Richard Nixon announces that a peace accord has been reached in Vietnam
1973 A volcanic eruption devastates Heimaey in the Vestmannaeyjar chain of islands off the south coast of Iceland
1986 The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inducts its first members: Little Richard, Chuck Berry, James Brown, Ray Charles, Fats Domino, the Everly Brothers, Buddy Holly, Jerry Lee Lewis and Elvis Presley
1997 Madeleine Albright becomes the first woman to serve as United States Secretary of State
1997 Greek Serial Killer Antonis Daglis is sentenced to thirteen consecutive life sentences, plus 25 years for the serial slayings of three women and the attempted murder of six others
2001 Five people attempt to set themselves on fire in Beijing's Tiananmen Square, an act that many people later claim is staged by the Communist Party of China to frame Falun Gong and thus escalate their persecution
2002 Reporter Daniel Pearl is kidnapped in Karachi, Pakistan and subsequently murdered
2002 "American Taliban" John Walker Lindh returns to the United States in FBI custody