Born on January 24

76 Hadrian Roman Emperor from 117 to 138. He re-built the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma. He is also known for building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Roman Britain. Hadrian was regarded by some as a humanist and was philhellene in most of his tastes. He is regarded as one of the Five Good Emperors
1287 Richard de Bury an English priest, teacher, bishop, writer, and bibliophile. He was a patron of learning and one of the first English collectors of books. He is chiefly remembered for his Philobiblon, written to inculcate in the clergy the pursuit of learning and the love of books. The "Philobiblon" is considered the earliest books to discuss librarianship in-depth
1444 Galeazzo Maria Sforza Duke of Milan from 1466 until his death. He was famous for being lustful, cruel and tyrannical
1501 Jacob Milich a German mathematician, physician and astronomer.
1540 Edmund Campion an English Roman Catholic Jesuit priest and martyr. While conducting an underground ministry in officially Anglican England, Campion was arrested by priest hunters. Convicted of high treason, he was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn. Campion was beatified by Pope Leo XIII in 1886 and canonised in 1970 by Pope Paul VI as one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales. His feast is celebrated on 1 December
1544 Gillis van Coninxloo a Flemish painter of landscapes who played an important role in the development of Northern landscape art at the turn of the 17th century. He spent the last 20 years of his life abroad, first in in Germany and later in the Dutch Republic
1547 Joanna of Austria Grand Duchess of Tuscany born an Archduchess of Austria as the youngest daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary. By marriage, she was the Grand Princess of Tuscany and later the Grand Duchess of Tuscany. One of her daughters was Marie de Medici, second wife of King Henry IV of France
1635 Rudolf Capell a German historian, linguist and pedagogue. He was renowned internationally as one of the great learned men of his time
1638 Charles Sackville 6th Earl of Dorset an English poet and courtier.
1653 Dom Jacques Alexandre a learned Benedictine monk of the Congregation of Maur. He made his profession in the abbey of Vendôme, 26 August 1673, and after completing his philosophical and theological studies, was sent to the monastery of Bonne-Nouvelle, where he spent the remainder of his life
1664 John Vanbrugh an English architect and dramatist, perhaps best known as the designer of Blenheim Palace and Castle Howard. He wrote two argumentative and outspoken Restoration comedies, The Relapse and The Provoked Wife , which have become enduring stage favourites but originally occasioned much controversy. He was knighted in 1714
1670 William Congreve an English playwright and poet.
1674 Thomas Tanner (bishop) an English antiquary and prelate.
1679 Christian Wolff (philosopher) a German philosopher. The mountain Mons Wolff on the Moon got its name in his honor
1705 Farinelli the stage name of Carlo Maria Michelangelo Nicola Broschi , celebrated Italian castrato singer of the 18th century and one of the greatest singers in the history of opera.
1709 Dom Bédos de Celles a Benedictine monk best known for being a master pipe organ builder.
1712 Frederick the Great II reigned over the Kingdom of Prussia from 1740 until 1786. The third Hohenzollern king, Frederick is best known for his military victories, his reorganization of Prussian armies, his patronage of the Arts and the Enlightenment in Prussia, and his final success against great odds in the Seven Years' War. He became known as Frederick the Great and was nicknamed Der Alte Fritz by the Prussian people
1732 Pierre Beaumarchais a French playwright, watchmaker, inventor, musician, diplomat, fugitive, spy, publisher, horticulturalist, arms dealer, satirist, financier, and revolutionary.
1743 Anne Duchess of Cumberland and Strathearn a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn.
1746 Gustav III of Sweden King of Sweden from 1771 until his death.
1749 Charles James Fox a prominent British Whig statesman whose parliamentary career spanned 38 years of the late 18th and early 19th centuries and who was particularly noted for being the arch-rival of William Pitt the Younger. His father Henry, a leading Whig of his day, had similarly been the great rival of Pitt's famous father. Fox rose to prominence in the House of Commons as a forceful and eloquent speaker with a notorious and colourful private life, though his opinions were rather conservative and conventional. However, with the coming of the American War of Independence and the influence of the Whig Edmund Burke, Fox's opinions evolved into some of the most radical ever to be aired in the Parliament of his era
1752 Muzio Clementi an Italian-born English composer, pianist, pedagogue, conductor, music publisher, editor, and piano manufacturer. Born in Rome, he spent most of his life in England
1754 Andrew Ellicott a U.S. surveyor who helped map many of the territories west of the Appalachians, surveyed the boundaries of the District of Columbia, continued and completed Pierre Charles L'Enfant's work on the plan for Washington, D.C., and served as a teacher in survey methods for Meriwether Lewis.
1761 Johann Christian Reinhart a German painter and engraver. He was one of the founders, along with Joseph Anton Koch, of German romantic classical landscape painting
1763 Louis Alexandre Andrault de Langeron a French military in the service of the Kingdom of France and in the service of the Russian Empire.
1763 Jean-Nicolas Bouilly a French playwright, librettist, children's writer, and politician of the French Revolution. He is best known for writing a libretto, supposedly based on a true story, about a woman who disguises herself as a man to rescue her husband from prison, which formed the basis of Beethoven's opera Fidelio as well as a number of other operas
1776 E. T. A. Hoffmann Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann , better known as T. Hoffmann, was a German Romantic author of fantasy and horror, a jurist, composer, music critic, draftsman and caricaturist. His stories form the basis of Jacques Offenbach's famous opera The Tales of Hoffmann, in which Hoffman appears as the hero. He is also the author of the novella The Nutcracker and the Mouse King, on which the famous ballet The Nutcracker is based. The ballet Coppélia is based on two other stories that Hoffmann wrote, while Schumann's Kreisleriana is based on Hoffmann's character Johannes Kreisler
1777 Ildefonso Díez de Rivera Count of Almodóvar a Spanish noble and politician who served as Minister of State in 1836 and as President of the Senate.
1778 Charles Ferdinand Duke of Berry the third child and youngest son of the future king, Charles X of France, and his wife, Princess Maria Theresa of Savoy. He was assassinated at the Paris Opera in 1820 by Louis Pierre Louvel, an anti-royal bonapartist. In June 1832, two years after the overthrow of his father, Charles X, his widow, Marie-Caroline de Bourbon-Sicile, duchess de Berry, led a royalist insurrection in the Vendée in a failed attempt to restore their son to the French throne
1779 Elizabeth Alexeievna (Louise of Baden) was, as Elizabeth Alexeievna, , Empress of Russia during her marriage with Emperor Alexander I.
1781 Louis-Mathieu Molé a French statesman and 18th Prime Minister of France.
1786 Walter Forward an American lawyer and politician. He was the brother of Chauncey Forward
1787 Christian Ludwig Brehm a German pastor and ornithologist. He was the father of Alfred Brehm
1789 Prince Grigol of Georgia a Georgian royal prince of the house of Bagrationi. A grandson of George XII, the last king of Georgia, and the only son of Prince Ioann of Georgia, he was briefly proclaimed as King of Georgia during a revolt against the Russian rule in 1812. After spending several months in a Russian prison, Grigol joined the Russian military ranks and took part in the 1813 Polish campaign. He is the author of several poems, memoirs, and a compilation of Georgian poetry
1792 Friedrich Wilhelm Count Brandenburg a German soldier and politician. He was the son of King Frederick William II of Prussia and Countess Sophie von Dönhoff. He and his sister were made count and countess in 1794, and he was raised with the sons of Field Marshal von Massow. In 1807, he entered the regiment Gardes du Corps. By 1848, he had distinguished himself in several battles and was a cavalry general. In November 1848, the king called him to Berlin to be Prussian prime minister, signaling the king's intention to quell the ongoing uprising. In 1850, he traveled to Warsaw to meet with Czar Nicholas. Shortly after his return, he took ill and died, it is said from the humiliation of the Czar's abandonment of the Erfurt policy
1798 Karl Georg Christian von Staudt now called Rothenburg ob der Tauber in Germany. From 1814 he studied in Gymnasium in Ausbach. He attended the University of Göttingen from 1818 to 1822 where he studied with Gauss who was director of the observatory. Staudt provided an ephemeris for the orbits of Mars and the asteroid Pallas. When in 1821 Comet Nicollet-Pons was observed, he provided the elements of its orbit. These accomplishments in astronomy earned him his doctorate from University of Erlangen in 1822
1798 Karl Eduard von Holtei a German poet and actor.
1802 Marie-Félicité Brosset a French orientalist who specialized in Georgian and Armenian studies. He worked mostly in Russia
1804 Delphine de Girardin a French author.
1813 Prince August of Württemberg a royal Prussian Colonel General of the Cavalry with the rank of Generalfeldmarschall and Kommandierender General of the Guards Corps for more than 20 years. August was a member of the House of Württemberg and a Prince of Württemberg by birth
1814 Duchess Helene of Mecklenburg-Schwerin a French Crown Princess after her marriage in 1837 to the eldest son of Louis Philippe I, Ferdinand Philippe of Orléans.
1814 Pierre Frédéric Dorian a French master blacksmith and politician, a radical Republican leader. He served as Minister of public works from 4 September 1870 – 19 February 1871
1814 John Colenso William Colenso , first Church of England Bishop of Natal, mathematician, theologian, Biblical scholar and social activist.
1816 Wilhelm Henzen a German philologist and epigraphist born in Bremen.
1818 John Mason Neale an Anglican priest, scholar and hymn-writer.
1820 Henry Jarvis Raymond an American journalist and politician and co-founder of The New York Times with George Jones.
1820 Felix Sumarokov-Elston the Ataman of the Kuban Cossacks and the Governor of Kuban Oblast in the late 1860s.
1828 Ferdinand Cohn a German biologist. He is one of the founders of modern bacteriology and microbiology
1832 John Pegram (general) a career soldier from Virginia who served as an officer in the United States Army and then as a brigadier general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War. He became the first former U.S. Army officer to be captured in Confederate service in 1861 and was killed in action near the end of the war
1841 Robert Williams (archer) an American archer who competed in the early twentieth century. He won two silver medals in Archery at the 1904 Summer Olympics in Missouri in the double york and American rounds. In the team competition he won the gold medal