January 24 events in history

41 Roman Emperor Caligula, known for his eccentricity and sadistic despotism, is assassinated by his disgruntled Praetorian Guards. The Guard then proclaims Caligula's uncle Claudius as Emperor
1438 The Council of Basel suspends Pope Eugene IV
1458 Matthias I Corvinus becomes king of Hungary
1624 Afonso Mendes, appointed by Pope Gregory XV as Prelate of Ethiopia, arrives at Massawa from Goa
1679 King Charles II of England dissolves the Cavalier Parliament
1742 Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor
1758 During the Seven Years' War the leading burghers of Königsberg submit to Elizabeth I of Russia, thus forming Russian Prussia (until 1763)
1817 Crossing of the Andes: Many soldiers of Juan Gregorio de las Heras are captured during the Action of Picheuta
1835 Slaves in Salvador da Bahia, Brazil, stage a revolt, which is instrumental in ending slavery there 50 years later
1848 California Gold Rush: James W. Marshall finds gold at Sutter's Mill near Sacramento
1857 The University of Calcutta is formally founded as the first fully-fledged university in South Asia
1859 Political and state union of Moldavia and Wallachia; Alexandru Ioan Cuza is elected as Domnitor in both Principalities
1862 Bucharest is proclaimed the capital of Romania
1878 The revolutionary Vera Zasulich shoots at Fyodor Trepov, the Governor of Saint Petersburg
1900 Second Boer War: Boers stop a British attempt to break the Siege of Ladysmith in the Battle of Spion Kop
1908 The first Boy Scout troop is organized in England by Robert Baden-Powell
1911 Japanese anarchist Shūsui Kōtoku is hanged for treason in a case now considered a miscarriage of justice
1916 In Brushaber v. Union Pacific Railroad, the Supreme Court of the United States declares the federal income tax constitutional
1918 The Gregorian calendar is introduced in Russia by decree of the Council of People's Commissars effective February 14(NS)
1933 The 20th Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, changing the beginning and end of terms for all elected federal offices
1939 The deadliest earthquake in Chilean history strikes Chillán, killing approximately 28,000 people
1942 World War II: The Allies bombard Bangkok, leading Thailand, then under Japanese control, to declare war against the United States and United Kingdom
1943 World War II: Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill conclude a conference in Casablanca
1946 The United Nations General Assembly passes its first resolution to establish the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission
1947 Greek banker Dimitrios Maximos becomes Prime Minister of Greece
1960 Algerian War: Some units of European volunteers in Algiers stage an insurrection known as the "barricades week", during which they seize government buildings and clash with local police
1961 1961 Goldsboro B-52 crash: A bomber carrying two H-bombs breaks up in mid-air over North Carolina. The uranium core of one weapon remains lost
1968 Vietnam War: The 1st Australian Task Force launches Operation Coburg against the North Vietnamese Army and Viet Cong during wider fighting around Long Bình and Biên Hòa
1972 Japanese Sgt. Shoichi Yokoi is found hiding in a Guam jungle, where he had been since the end of World War II
1977 Massacre of Atocha in Madrid, during the Spanish transition to democracy
1978 Soviet satellite Cosmos 954, with a nuclear reactor on board, burns up in Earth's atmosphere, scattering radioactive debris over Canada's Northwest Territories. Only 1% is recovered
1984 The first Apple Macintosh goes on sale
1986 Voyager 2 passes within 81,500 kilometres (50,600 mi) of Uranus
1990 Japan launches Hiten, the country's first lunar probe, the first robotic lunar probe since the Soviet Union's Luna 24 in 1976, and the first lunar probe launched by a country other than Soviet Union or the United States
1993 Turkish journalist and writer Uğur Mumcu is assassinated by a car bomb in Ankara
1996 Polish Prime Minister Józef Oleksy resigns amid charges that he spied for Moscow
2003 The United States Department of Homeland Security officially begins operation
2009 The storm Klaus makes landfall near Bordeaux, France. It subsequently would cause 26 deaths as well as extensive disruptions to public transport and power supplies
2011 At least 35 die and 180 are injured in a bombing at Moscow's Domodedovo airport
2014 The Philippines and the Bangsamoro agree to a peace deal that would help end the 45-year conflict
2014 Three bombs explode in the Egyptian capital, Cairo, killing about 7 people and injuring over 100 others