Born on January 25

17 Messalina the third wife of the Roman Emperor Claudius. She was also a paternal cousin of the Emperor Nero, second cousin of the Emperor Caligula, and great-grandniece of the Emperor Augustus. A powerful and influential woman with a reputation for promiscuity, it was claimed that she conspired against her husband and was executed when the plot was discovered. Her notorious reputation is arguably the result of political bias. It has been perpetuated by works of art and literature into modern times
750 Leo IV the Khazar Byzantine Emperor from 775 to 780 AD.
1138 Antipope Anacletus II an Antipope who ruled from 1130 to his death, in a schism against the contested, hasty election of Pope Innocent II.
1217 Isabella Queen of Armenia the queen regnant of Cilician Armenia.
1477 Anne of Brittany the last independent Breton ruler, and twice the queen of France. She was born in Nantes, Brittany, and was the daughter of Duke Francis II of Brittany and Margaret of Foix. Upon her father's death, she became Duchess of Brittany, Countess of Nantes, Montfort, and Richmond, and Viscountess of Limoges. In her time, she was the richest European woman
1493 Maximilian Sforza a Duke of Milan from the Sforza family, the son of Lodovico Sforza. He ruled 1512–1515, between the occupations of Louis XII of France , and Francis I of France in 1515. After the French victory at the Battle of Marignano, Massimiliano was imprisoned by the returning French troops. He waived his rights to Milan for the sum of 30,000 ducats and continued to live in France
1509 Giovanni Morone an Italian cardinal. He was named Bishop of Modena in 1529 and was created Cardinal in 1542 by Pope Paul III. As a cardinal, he resided in the Vatican's Apostolic Palace and was consulted by Saint Ignatius, founder of the Jesuits
1526 Adolf Duke of Holstein-Gottorp the first Duke of Holstein-Gottorp from the line of Holstein-Gottorp of the House of Oldenburg.
1555 Charles Duke of Aumale the son of Claude, Duke of Aumale and Louise de Brézé.
1567 Archduchess Margaret of Austria (1567–1633) a German princess member of the House of Habsburg.
1597 Johann Philipp Duke of Saxe-Altenburg a duke of Saxe-Altenburg.
1615 Govert Flinck a Dutch painter of the Dutch Golden Age.
1627 Robert Boyle an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor. Born in Lismore, County Waterford, Ireland, he was also noted for his writings in theology. Although his research clearly has its roots in the alchemical tradition, Boyle is largely regarded today as the first modern chemist, and therefore one of the founders of modern chemistry, and one of the pioneers of modern experimental scientific method. He is best known for Boyle's law, which describes the inversely proportional relationship between the absolute pressure and volume of a gas, if the temperature is kept constant within a closed system. Among his works, The Sceptical Chymist is seen as a cornerstone book in the field of chemistry
1630 Louis VI Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1661 to 1678.
1634 Gaspar Fagel a Dutch statesman, writer and quasi-diplomat who authored correspondence from and on behalf of William III, Prince of Orange during the English Revolution of 1688.
1640 William Cavendish 1st Duke of Devonshire an English soldier and Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1661 to 1684 when he inherited his father's peerage as Earl of Devonshire. He was created Duke of Devonshire in 1694
1655 Cornelius Anckarstjerna a Swedish admiral of Dutch origin and a member of the Swedish House of Nobility.
1661 Antonio I Prince of Monaco the Prince of Monaco from 1701 to 1731. He was the elder son of Louis I, Prince of Monaco and Catherine Charlotte de Gramont
1688 Juraj Jánošík a famous Slovak highwayman. Jánošík has been the main character of many Slovak and Polish legends, novels, poems and films. He is a semi-legendary character in Central Europe
1708 Pompeo Batoni an Italian painter who displayed a solid technical knowledge in his portrait work and in his numerous allegorical and mythological pictures. The high number of foreign visitors travelling throughout Italy and reaching Rome during their Grand Tour, made the artist specialized in portraits. Batoni won international fame largely thanks to his customers, mostly British of noble origin, whom he portrayed, often with famous Italian landscapes in the background. Such "Grand Tour" portraits by Batoni were in British private collections, thus ensuring the genre's popularity in the United Kingdom. One generation later, Sir Joshua Reynolds would take up this tradition and become the leading English portrait painter. Although Batoni was considered the best Italian painter of his time, contemporary chronicles mention of his rivalry with Anton Raphael Mengs
1719 Princess Sophia Dorothea of Prussia the ninth child and fifth daughter of Frederick William I of Prussia and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover. By marriage, she was a Margravine of Brandenburg-Schwedt
1723 La Clairon Clair Josèphe Hippolyte Leris, was born at Condé-sur-l'Escaut, Hainaut, the daughter of an army sergeant.
1725 Antoine Court de Gébelin a former Protestant pastor, born at Nîmes, who initiated the interpretation of the Tarot as an arcane repository of timeless esoteric wisdom in 1781.
1736 Joseph-Louis Lagrange an Italian Enlightenment Era mathematician and astronomer. He made significant contributions to the fields of analysis, number theory, and both classical and celestial mechanics
1743 Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi an influential German philosopher, literary figure, socialite, and the younger brother of poet Johann Georg Jacobi. He is notable for coining the term nihilism and promoting it as the prime fault of Enlightenment thought particularly in the philosophical systems of Baruch Spinoza, Immanuel Kant, Johann Fichte and Friedrich Schelling. Instead of speculative reason, he advocated Glaube and revelation. In this sense, Jacobi anticipated present-day writers who criticize secular philosophy as relativistic and dangerous for religious faith. In his time, he was also well-known among literary circles for his critique of the Sturm and Drang movement, and implicitly close associate Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, and its visions of atomized individualism. His literary projects were devoted to the reconciliation of Enlightenment individualism with social obligation
1746 Stéphanie Félicité comtesse de Genlis a French writer, harpist and educator.
1750 Johann Gottfried Vierling a German organist and composer.
1755 Paolo Mascagni an Italian physician, known for his study of human anatomy, in particular for the first complete description of the lymphatic system.
1759 Robert Burns a Scottish poet and lyricist. He is widely regarded as the national poet of Scotland and is celebrated worldwide. He is the best known of the poets who have written in the Scots language, although much of his writing is also in English and a light Scots dialect, accessible to an audience beyond Scotland. He also wrote in standard English, and in these writings his political or civil commentary is often at its bluntest
1766 Hans Christoph Ernst von Gagern born at Kleinniedesheim, near Worms. After studying law at the universities of Leipzig and Göttingen, he entered the service of the Prince of Nassau-Weilburg, whom in 1791 he represented at the imperial diet
1777 Karoline Jagemann a major German tragedienne and singer. Her great roles included Elizabeth in Mary Stuart and Beatrice in The Bride of Messina. She is also notable as a mistress of Karl August, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, the father of her three children. Both she and Karl August had their portraits painted by Heinrich Christoph Kolbe
1783 William Colgate an English manufacturer who founded in 1806 what became the Colgate toothpaste company.
1787 Jean Antoine Letronne a French archaeologist.
1790 William Henry Sykes an English naturalist who served with the British military in India and was specifically known for his work with the Indian Army as a politician, Indologist and ornithologist. One of the pioneers of the Victorian statistical movement, he conducted surveys and examined the efficiency of army operation. Returning from service in India, he became a director of the East India Company and a member of parliament representing Aberdeen
1794 Elias Durand an American pharmacist and botanist.:76. He was born in France
1794 Garcin de Tassy a French orientalist.
1794 François-Vincent Raspail a French chemist, naturalist, physician, physiologist, attorney, and socialist politician.
1796 William MacGillivray a Scottish naturalist and ornithologist.
1801 Henri de Brouckère a Belgian nobleman and liberal politician. Born in Bruges, he was a magistrate, and a professor at the Université Libre de Bruxelles. His brother Charles was mayor of Brussels
1804 Antoni Edward Odyniec a Polish Romantic-era poet who penned the celebrated "Song of the Filaretes".
1806 Daniel Maclise an Irish history, literary and portrait painter, and illustrator, who worked for most of his life in London, England.
1813 J. Marion Sims a physician and a pioneer in the field of surgery, considered by some as the father of modern gynecology. His most significant work was to develop a surgical technique for the repair of vesicovaginal fistula, a severe complication of obstructed childbirth
1819 Ernest Charles Jones an English poet, novelist, and Chartist.
1822 Charles Reed Bishop a businessman and philanthropist in Hawaii, who married into the Hawaiian royal family. Born in Glens Falls, New York, he sailed to Hawaii in 1846 at the age of 24, and made his home there. Bishop was one of the first trustees of and a major donor to the Kamehameha Schools in Hawaii. He also founded the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, and founded Hawaii's first successful bank, which is now known as First Hawaiian Bank
1822 William McDougall (politician) a Canadian lawyer, politician and one of the Fathers of Confederation.
1823 Zeynalabdin Taghiyev an Azeri national industrial magnate and philanthropist.
1824 Michael Madhusudan Dutt a popular 19th-century Bengali poet and dramatist. He was born in Sagordari , on the bank of Kopotaksho River, a village in Keshabpur Upazila, Jessore District, Bengal Presidency, East Bengal. His father was Rajnarayan Dutt, an eminent lawyer, and his mother was Jahnabi Devi. He was a pioneer of Bengali drama. His famous work Meghnad Bodh Kavya , is a tragic epic. It consists of nine cantos and is exceptional in Bengali literature both in terms of style and content. He also wrote poems about the sorrows and afflictions of love as spoken by women
1825 Edward Frankland a British chemist. He was an expert in water quality and analysis, and originated the concept of combining power, or valence, in chemistry. He was also one of the originators of organometallic chemistry
1828 Charles Allston Collins a British painter, writer and illustrator associated with the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.
1831 Konstantin Leontiev a conservative, monarchist Russian philosopher who advocated closer cultural ties between Russia and the East in order to oppose the catastrophic egalitarian, utilitarian and revolutionary influences from the West. He advocated Russia's cultural and territorial expansion eastward to India, Tibet, and China