Died on January 25

389 Gregory of Nazianzus a 4th-century Archbishop of Constantinople. He is widely considered the most accomplished rhetorical stylist of the patristic age.:xxi As a classically trained orator and philosopher he infused Hellenism into the early church, establishing the paradigm of Byzantine theologians and church officials.:xxiv
477 Genseric King of the Vandals and Alans who established the Vandal Kingdom was one of the key players in the troubles of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. During his nearly 50 years of rule, he raised a relatively insignificant Germanic tribe to the status of a major Mediterranean power — which, after he died, entered a swift decline and eventual collapse
750 Ibrahim ibn al-Walid an Umayyad caliph, and a son of Caliph al-Walid He only ruled for a short time in 744 before he abdicated, and went into hiding out of fear of his political opponents. The shortness of this time and his incomplete acceptance led Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari to state that he did not succeed in becoming caliph. However, at Tabari does record that Ibrahim as caliph did confirm the appointment of Abdallah ibn Umar as governor of Iraq
844 Pope Gregory IV Pope from October 827 to his death in 844. His pontificate was notable for the papacy’s attempts to intervene in the quarrels between the emperor Louis the Pious and his sons. It also saw the breakup of the Carolingian Empire in 843
1003 Lothair Margrave of the Nordmark a Saxon count and Margrave of the Northern March from about 983 until his death.
1042 Abu al-Qasim Muhammad ibn Abbad the founder and eponym of the Abbadid dynasty; he was the first independent Muslim ruler of Seville in Al-Andalus ,dying in 1042.
1067 Emperor Yingzong of Song the fifth emperor of the Song Dynasty of China. His personal name was originally Zhao Zongshi but he later changed it to Zhao Shu. He reigned from 1063 to 1067. His temple name means "Outstandingly Talented Ancestor"
1139 Godfrey I Count of Louvain the landgrave of Brabant, and count of Brussels and Leuven from 1095 to his death and duke of Lower Lorraine from 1106 to 1129. He was also margrave of Antwerp from 1106 to his death
1273 Odo of Châteauroux a French theologian and scholastic philosopher, papal legate and Cardinal. He was “an experienced preacher and promoter of crusades”. Over 1000 of his sermons survive
1366 Henry Suso O.P. was a German Dominican friar, who was a noted spiritual writer and mystic. He died in the Free Imperial City of Ulm on 25 January 1366. He was beatified by the Catholic Church in 1831
1431 Charles II Duke of Lorraine the Duke of Lorraine from 1390 to his death and Constable of France from 1418 to 1425. Charles was the elder son of John I, Duke of Lorraine, and Sophie, daughter of Eberhard II, Count of Württemberg
1494 Ferdinand I of Naples the King of Naples from 1458 to 1494. He was the son of Alfonso V of Aragon and his mistress, Giraldona Carlino
1494 Archangela Girlani an Italian Carmelite Order nun who was widely known for her mystical visions. Devotion to her has been approved by the Catholic Church, which has recognized her with an equivalent beatification
1534 Magdalena of Saxony Margravine of Brandenburg, its "Electoral Princess", the Electoral equivalent of a crown princess.
1559 Christian II of Denmark reigned as King of Denmark and Norway from 1513 until 1523 and of Sweden from 1520 until 1521. He was the oldest son of King John and belonged to the House of Oldenburg. Denmark was then an elective monarchy in which the nobility elected the new king, who had to share his power with them. After his short reign in Sweden, where he was also known as Christian the Tyrant , he was deposed by the nobleman Gustav Vasa. His reign in Denmark and Norway was cut short when his uncle deposed him and took the thrones as Frederick Christian was then exiled to the Netherlands, then ruled by his brother-in-law, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
1586 Lucas Cranach the Younger a German Renaissance artist, known for his woodcuts and paintings.
1588 Mihrimah Sultan the daughter of the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I and his wife Hürrem Sultan. Mihrimah Sultan's name is also spelled Mihrumah, Mihr-î-Mâh, Mihrî-a-Mâh or Mehr-î-Mâh. She was born in Constantinople. Mehr-î-Mâh means "Sun and Moon"
1622 Charles Philip Duke of Södermanland a Swedish prince, Duke of Södermanland, Närke and Värmland. Charles Philip was the second surviving son of King Charles IX of Sweden and his second spouse, Duchess Christina of Holstein-Gottorp
1640 Robert Burton (scholar) an English scholar at Oxford University, best known for the classic The Anatomy of Melancholy. He was also the incumbent of St Thomas the Martyr, Oxford, and of Seagrave in Leicestershire
1670 Nicholas Francis Duke of Lorraine briefly Duke of Lorraine and Duke of Bar for a few months in 1634, spanning the time between the abdication of his older brother and his own resignation. He was therefore Duke during the invasion of Lorraine by the French in the Thirty Years War
1722 Joachim Frederick Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön the third Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Plön, a dukedom created by the division of the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg.
1726 Guillaume Delisle a French cartographer known for his popular and accurate maps of Europe and the newly explored Americas and Africa.
1733 Sir Gilbert Heathcote 1st Baronet a Governor of the Bank of England and Lord Mayor of London in the early 18th Century.
1740 Geminiano Giacomelli an Italian composer.
1744 Domenico Sarro an Italian composer.
1756 Christian Vater a German organ and harpsichord builder.
1790 Giusto Fernando Tenducci a soprano opera singer and composer, who passed his career partly in Italy but chiefly in Britain.
1820 Joseph Franz Weigl a Bavarian and Austrian cellist. He was a cellist in the orchestra of the Esterházy family. He played under the directorship of Joseph Haydn, who also was godfather to the cellist's son, and it is thought that Haydn wrote his cello concerto in C major for him
1829 William Shield an English composer, violinist and violist who was born in Swalwell near Gateshead, the son of William Shield and his wife, Mary, née Cash.
1831 Ernst August Friedrich Klingemann a German writer. He is generally agreed to be the author of the 1804 novel Nachtwachen under the pseudonym Bonaventura
1844 Jean-Baptiste Drouet Comte d'Erlon a marshal of France and a soldier in Napoleon's Army. D'Erlon notably commanded the I Corps of the Armée du Nord at the battle of Waterloo
1849 Philip Osipovich Paulucci an Italian marquis and an adjutant general in Russian army.
1849 Elias Parish Alvars an English harpist and composer.
1850 Dmitri Bantysh-Kamensky a Russian statesman and historian. He served as Governor of Tobolsk Province and then Governor of Vilna Province
1852 Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen a Baltic German officer in the Imperial Russian Navy, cartographer and explorer, who ultimately rose to the rank of Admiral. He was a notable participant of the first Russian circumnavigation and subsequently a leader of another circumnavigation expedition, which discovered the continent of Antarctica
1855 Gaetano Rossi an Italian opera librettist for several of the well-known bel canto-era composers including Gioachino Rossini, Gaetano Donizetti, and Saverio Mercadante in Italy and Giacomo Meyerbeer in one of his early Italian successes. Other composers with whom he worked included Simon Mayr, a composer and Donizetti's teacher, as well as the prolific Giovanni Pacini
1855 Dorothy Wordsworth an English author, poet and diarist. She was the sister of the Romantic poet William Wordsworth, and the two were close all their lives. Wordsworth had no ambitions to be an author, and her writings consist only of series of letters, diary entries, poems and short stories
1861 Charles Philipon Born in Lyon, he was a French lithographer, caricaturist and journalist. He was the editor of the La Caricature and of Le Charivari, both satirical political journals
1868 Alexander Roberts Dunn the first Canadian awarded the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
1870 Victor de Broglie (1785–1870) a French statesman and diplomat. He was twice President of the Council during the July Monarchy, from August 1830 to November 1830 and from March 1835 to February 1836. Victor de Broglie was close to the liberal Doctrinaires who opposed the ultra-royalists and were absorbed, under Louis-Philippe's rule, by the Orléanists
1870 Wilhelm Moritz Keferstein a German naturalist. He described a number of reptiles and amphibians for the first time
1871 Jeanne Villepreux-Power a pioneering female French marine biologist who in 1832 was the first person to create aquaria for experimenting with aquatic organisms.
1872 Richard S. Ewell a career United States Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. He achieved fame as a senior commander under Stonewall Jackson and Robert Lee and fought effectively through much of the war, but his legacy has been clouded by controversies over his actions at the Battle of Gettysburg and at the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House
1875 Leopold Jansa a Bohemian violinist, composer, and teacher.
1880 Jacob Augustus Lockhart Clarke primarily known for his studies of the brain and the spinal cord.
1881 Konstantin Thon an official architect of Imperial Russia during the reign of Nicholas His major works include the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, the Grand Kremlin Palace and the Kremlin Armoury in Moscow.
1884 James Francis the 9th Premier of Victoria. Francis was born in London, and emigrated to Van Diemen's Land in 1847, where he became a businessman. He moved to Victoria in 1853 and became a leading Melbourne merchant. He was a director of the Bank of New South Wales and president of the Melbourne Chamber of Commerce. He married Mary Ogilvie and had eight sons and seven daughters
1884 Johann Gottfried Piefke a German conductor, Kapellmeister and composer of military music.
1884 Périclès Pantazis a major Greek impressionist painter of the 19th century that gained a great reputation as an artist initially in Belgium.
1885 Alois Emanuel Biedermann a Swiss Protestant theologian. He was a prominent dogmatician of the so-called "Young Hegelian" school of thought, and an important advocate of "free Christianity" in Switzerland