January 26 events in history

1340 King Edward III of England is declared King of France
1500 Vicente Yáñez Pinzón becomes the first European to set foot on Brazil
1531 Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake—thousands die
1564 The Council of Trent issues its conclusions in the Tridentinum, establishing a distinction between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism
1564 The Grand Duchy of Lithuania defeats the Tsardom of Russia in the Battle of Ula during the Livonian War
1565 Battle of Talikota, fought between the Vijayanagara Empire and the Islamic sultanates of the Deccan, leads to the subjugation, and eventual destruction of the last Hindu kingdom in India, and the consolidation of Islamic rule over much of the Indian subcontinent
1589 Job is elected as Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia
1699 Treaty of Karlowitz is signed
1700 The magnitude 9 Cascadia Earthquake takes place off the west coast of the North America, as evidenced by Japanese records
1736 Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne
1788 The British First Fleet, led by Arthur Phillip, sails into Port Jackson (Sydney Harbour) to establish Sydney, the first permanent European settlement on the continent. Commemorated as Australia Day
1808 Rum Rebellion, the only successful (albeit short-lived) armed takeover of the government in Australia
1837 Michigan is admitted as the 26th U.S. state
1838 Tennessee enacts the first prohibition law in the United States
1841 The United Kingdom formally occupies Hong Kong, which China later formally cedes
1855 Point No Point Treaty is signed in Washington Territory
1856 First Battle of Seattle. Marines from the USS Decatur drive off American Indian attackers after all day battle with settlers
1861 American Civil War: The state of Louisiana secedes from the Union
1863 American Civil War: General Ambrose Burnside is relieved of command of the Army of the Potomac after the disastrous Fredericksburg campaign. He is replaced by Joseph Hooker
1863 American Civil War: Governor of Massachusetts John Albion Andrew receives permission from Secretary of War to raise a militia organization for men of African descent
1870 American Civil War: Virginia rejoins the Union
1885 Troops loyal to The Mahdi conquer Khartoum, killing the Governor-General Charles George Gordon
1905 The world's largest diamond ever, the Cullinan weighing 3,106.75 carats (0.621350 kg), is found at the Premier Mine near Pretoria in South Africa
1907 The Short Magazine Lee-Enfield Mk III is officially introduced into British Military Service, and remains the second oldest military rifle still in official use
1911 Glenn H. Curtiss flies the first successful American seaplane
1911 Richard Strauss' opera Der Rosenkavalier receives its debut performance at the Dresden State Opera
1915 The Rocky Mountain National Park is established by an act of the U.S. Congress
1918 Finnish Civil War: A group of Red Guards hangs a red lantern atop the tower of Helsinki Workers' Hall to symbolically mark the start of the war
1920 Former Ford Motor Company executive Henry Leland launches the Lincoln Motor Company which he later sold to his former employer
1924 Saint Petersburg, Russia, is renamed Leningrad
1930 The Indian National Congress declares 26 January as Independence Day or as the day for Poorna Swaraj ("Complete Independence") which occurred 17 years later
1934 The Apollo Theater reopens in Harlem, New York City
1934 German–Polish Non-Aggression Pact is signed
1939 Spanish Civil War – Catalonia Offensive: Troops loyal to nationalist General Francisco Franco and aided by Italy take Barcelona
1942 World War II: The first United States forces arrive in Europe landing in Northern Ireland
1945 World War II: The Red Army begins encircling the German Fourth Army near Heiligenbeil in East Prussia, which will end in destruction of the 4th Army two months later
1945 World War II: Audie Murphy in action that will later win him the Medal of Honor
1949 The Hale telescope at Palomar Observatory sees first light under the direction of Edwin Hubble, becoming the largest aperture optical telescope (until BTA-6 is built in 1976)
1950 The Constitution of India comes into force, forming a republic. Rajendra Prasad is sworn in as its first President of India. Observed as Republic Day in India
1952 Black Saturday in Egypt: rioters burn Cairo's central business district, targeting British and upper-class Egyptian businesses
1958 Japanese ferry Nankai Maru capsizes off southern Awaji Island, Japan, 167 killed
1960 Danny Heater sets a worldwide high school basketball scoring record when he records 135 points for Burnsville High School (West Virginia)
1961 John F. Kennedy appoints Janet G. Travell to be his physician. This is the first time a woman holds the appointment of Physician to the President
1962 Ranger program: Ranger 3 is launched to study the moon. The space probe later misses the moon by 22,000 miles (35,400 km)
1965 Hindi becomes the official language of India
1966 The Beaumont Children go missing from Glenelg Beach near Adelaide, South Australia
1978 The Great Blizzard of 1978, a rare severe blizzard with the lowest non-tropical atmospheric pressure ever recorded in the US until October 2010, strikes the Ohio – Great Lakes region with heavy snow and winds up to 100 mph (161 km/h)
1980 Israel and Egypt establish diplomatic relations
1986 The Ugandan government of Tito Okello is overthrown by the National Resistance Army, led by Yoweri Museveni
1991 Mohamed Siad Barre is removed from power in Somalia, ending centralized government, and is succeeded by Ali Mahdi