Born on January 27

1137 John of Crema an Italian papal legate and Cardinal. He was a close supporter of Pope Callistus II
1242 Saint Margaret of Hungary a Dominican nun and the daughter of King Béla IV of Hungary and Maria Laskarina. She was the younger sister of Kinga of Poland and the Blessed Yolanda of Poland and, through her father, the niece of the famed Saint Elizabeth of Hungary
1443 Albert III Duke of Saxony a Duke of Saxony. He was nicknamed Albert the Bold or Albert the Courageous and founded the Albertine line of the House of Wettin
1546 Joachim III Frederick Elector of Brandenburg Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg from 1598 until his death.
1571 Abbas I of Persia the 5th Safavid Shah Emperor of Iran, and generally considered the greatest ruler of the Safavid dynasty. He was the third son of Shah Mohammad
1585 Hendrick Avercamp a Dutch painter.
1603 Sir Harbottle Grimston 2nd Baronet an English lawyer and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1640 and 1685 and was Speaker in 1660. During the English Civil War he remained a Parliamentarian but was sympathetic to the Royalists
1615 Nicolas Fouquet the Superintendent of Finances in France from 1653 until 1661 under King Louis XIV. He fell out of favor with the young king, probably because of his extravagant displays of wealth, and the king had him imprisoned from 1661 until his death in 1680
1621 Thomas Willis an English doctor who played an important part in the history of anatomy, neurology and psychiatry. He was a founding member of the Royal Society
1655 Henri de Nesmond a French churchman, bishop of Montauban, archbishop of Albi and archbishop of Toulouse.
1662 Richard Bentley an English classical scholar, critic, and theologian. He was Master of Trinity College, Cambridge
1679 Jean François de Troy a French Rococo painter and tapestry designer. He was one of a family of painters, being the son of the portrait painter François de Troy , under whom he first studied, and at whose expense he first went to Italy from 1699 to 1706, staying in Rome, but also visiting many north Italian cities
1687 Balthasar Neumann a German military artillery engineer and architect who developed a refined brand of Baroque architecture, fusing Austrian, Bohemian, Italian, and French elements to design some of the most impressive buildings of the period, including the Würzburg Residence and the Basilica of the Fourteen Holy Helpers, called Vierzehnheiligen in German.
1701 Johann Nikolaus von Hontheim a German historian and theologian. He is remembered as Febronius, the pseudonym under which he wrote his 1763 treatise On the State of the Church and the Legitimate Power of the Roman Pontiff which offered Europe the "foremost formulation of the arguments against papal absolutism in Germany"
1708 Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna of Russia the elder daughter of Emperor Peter I of Russia and Empress Catherine I of Russia. Her sister, Elizabeth of Russia, ruled as Empress between 1741 and 1762. Her son Peter ruled as Emperor in 1762 as Elizabeth's heir. She was the Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp by marriage
1723 Charles-Henri-Louis d'Arsac de Ternay a French naval officer. Most active in the Seven Years' War and the War of American Independence, Ternay was the naval commander of a 1762 expedition that successfully captured John's Newfoundland. He was appointed commander of the Marine Royale, French naval forces, as part of the project code named Expédition Particulière that brought French troops to American soil in 1780. He died aboard ship off Newport, Rhode Island
1731 Pierre Joseph Buchoz a French physician, lawyer and naturalist.
1732 Antoni Barnaba Jabłonowski a Polish noble and political activist.
1735 Étienne Clavière a Swiss-born French financier and politician of the French Revolution.
1740 Johan Andreas Murray a Swedish physician of German descent and botanist who published a major work on plant-derived medicines.
1741 Hester Thrale a British diarist, author, and patron of the arts. Her diaries and correspondence are an important source of information about Samuel Johnson and 18th-century life
1756 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era.
1757 Gomes Freire de Andrade a Portuguese officer that served France at his military careers end.
1761 Charles-Alexandre Léon Durand Linois a French admiral during the time of Napoleon Bonaparte. He won a victory over the British at the Battle of Algeciras in 1801 and was reasonably successful in a campaign against British trade in the Indian Ocean and South China Sea in 1803
1773 Prince Augustus Frederick Duke of Sussex the sixth son of George III of the United Kingdom and his consort, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. He was the only surviving son of George III who did not pursue an army or naval career
1775 Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling a German philosopher. Standard histories of philosophy make him the midpoint in the development of German idealism, situating him between Johann Gottlieb Fichte, his mentor in his early years, and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, his former university roommate, early friend, and later rival. Interpreting Schelling's philosophy is regarded as difficult because of its apparently ever-changing nature
1777 Lukijan Mušicki a Serbian poet, prose writer, and polyglot.
1779 Georg Anton Schäffer a German physician in the employ of the Russian-American Company who attempted to conquer Hawaii for the Company and, ultimately, the Russian Empire. The bloodless Schäffer Affair or the Hawaiian spectacular, as it was called by contemporary Russians, became a significant financial blunder for the Company
1780 Juan Álvarez a general and interim president of Mexico for a few months in 1855. He fought in all the major wars of his day, from the War of Independence through the Pastry War, the Mexican-American War, and the War of the Reform to the war against the French Intervention. A liberal reformer, a republican and a federalist, he was the leader of a revolution in support of Benito Juárez's Plan de Ayutla in 1854, which led to the deposition of Antonio López de Santa Anna from power and the beginning of the political era in Mexico's history known as La Reforma
1784 Martin-Joseph Mengal a Belgian composer and instructor.
1790 William Davies Evans best known today as a chess player. He is buried at the Belgian port of Ostend
1795 Julius Schoppe a German portrait, landscape, history and fresco painter in the Biedermeier style.
1795 Eli Whitney Blake an American inventor, best known for his mortise lock and stone-crushing machine, the latter of which earned him a place into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.
1805 Princess Sophie of Bavaria born to King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria and his second wife Caroline of Baden. She was the identical twin sister of Princess Maria Anna of Bavaria, Queen of Saxony as wife of Frederick Augustus II of Saxony. Her eldest son Franz Joseph reigned as Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, King of Croatia, Apostolic King of Hungary, King of Galicia and Lodomeria and Grand Duke of Cracow; her second son Maximilian reigned as Emperor of Mexico
1805 Samuel Palmer a British landscape painter, etcher and printmaker. He was also a prolific writer. Palmer was a key figure in Romanticism in Britain and produced visionary pastoral paintings
1805 Maria Anna of Bavaria (1805–1877) Queen Consort of Saxony from 1836 to 1854.
1806 Juan Crisóstomo Arriaga a Spanish composer. He was nicknamed "the Spanish Mozart" after he died, because, like Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, he was both a child prodigy and an accomplished composer who died young. They also shared the same first and second baptismal names; and they shared the same birthday, January 27
1806 Julius Hübner a German historical painter of the Düsseldorf school of painting. He was also known as a poet and the father of Emil Hübner, a distinguished classical scholar
1808 David Strauss a German theologian and writer. He scandalized Christian Europe with his portrayal of the "historical Jesus", whose divine nature he denied. His work was connected to the Tübingen School, which revolutionized study of the New Testament, early Christianity, and ancient religions. Strauss was a pioneer in the historical investigation of Jesus
1814 Eugène Viollet-le-Duc a French architect and theorist, famous for his interpretive "restorations" of medieval buildings. Born in Paris, he was a major Gothic Revival architect
1820 Juan Crisóstomo Falcón President of Venezuela.
1821 John Chivington a former Methodist pastor who served as colonel in the United States Volunteers during the Colorado War and the New Mexico Campaigns of the American Civil War. In 1862, he was in the Battle of Glorieta Pass against a Confederate supply train
1822 Max Wirth a German journalist and economist.
1823 Édouard Lalo a French composer.
1824 Jozef Israëls a Dutch painter, and "the most respected Dutch artist of the second half of the nineteenth century".
1826 Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin a major Russian satirist of the 19th century. He spent most of his life working as a civil servant in various capacities. After the death of poet Nikolay Nekrasov, he acted as editor of the well-known Russian magazine, Otechestvenniye Zapiski, until it was banned by the government in 1884. His best known work is the novel The Golovlyov Family
1826 Richard Taylor (general) an American plantation owner, politician, military historian and Confederate general during the American Civil War. He was the son of Zachary Taylor, a general in the United States Army and later President of the United States, and his wife Margaret Mackall Smith Taylor
1827 Nakahama Manjirō also known as John Manjirō. He was one of the first Japanese people to visit the United States and an important translator during the Opening of Japan
1827 Thomas Joseph Lamy a Belgian Biblical scholar and Orientalist.
1827 Kawai Tsugunosuke a Japanese samurai of the late Edo period, who served the Makino clan of Nagaoka. Kawai was a senior military commander of Nagaoka forces during the Boshin War of 1868-1869. He escaped to nearby Aizu after his domain's fall; however, he contracted gangrene from an untreated leg wound, and died in Aizu