Born on January 28

598 Emperor Taizong of Tang the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China, ruling from 626 to 649. As he encouraged his father, Li Yuan to rise against Sui Dynasty rule at Taiyuan in 617 and subsequently defeated several of his most important rivals, he was ceremonially regarded as a co-founder of the dynasty along with Emperor Gaozu
676 Prince Toneri a Japanese imperial prince in the Nara period. He was a son of Emperor Temmu. He was given the posthumous name, Emperor Sudoujinkei , as the father of Emperor Junnin. In the beginning of the Nara period, he gained political power as a leader of imperial family together with Prince Nagaya. He supervised the compilation of the Nihonshoki
1225 Thomas Aquinas also known as the "Doctor Angelicus" and "Doctor Communis". "Aquinas" is from the county of Aquino, an area in which his family held land until 1137. He was born in Roccasecca, Italy
1292 Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya an Arab Sunni Islamic jurist, commentator on the Qur'an and theologian. Although he is sometimes referred to as "the scholar of the heart", given his extensive works pertaining to human behavior and ethics, Ibn al-Qayyim's scholarship was focused on the sciences of Hadith and Fiqh
1312 Joan II of Navarre Queen of Navarre from 1328 until her death. She was the only child of Louis the Quarreler, King of France and Navarre, and Margaret of Burgundy. Because Margaret was known to have been involved in an extramarital affair, Joan's paternity was questioned by those who wished to refute her claim to the thrones of France, Navarre and Champagne
1382 Richard de Beauchamp 13th Earl of Warwick an English medieval nobleman and military commander.
1406 Guy XIV de Laval a French nobleman, known for his account of Joan of Arc. He and his brother André de Lohéac were simultaneously vassals of the duke of Brittany and of the king of France
1457 Henry VII of England King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizing the crown on 22 August 1485 until his death on 21 April 1509, as the first monarch of the House of Tudor.
1540 Ludolph van Ceulen a German-Dutch mathematician from Hildesheim. He emigrated to the Netherlands
1568 Gustav of Sweden (1568–1607) a Swedish prince, the son of Eric XIV and Karin Månsdotter.
1572 Jane Frances de Chantal a Roman Catholic Saint, who founded a religious order after the death of her husband.
1578 Cornelius Haga the first ambassador of the Dutch Republic to the Ottoman Empire.
1582 John Barclay (poet) a Scottish writer, satirist and neo-Latin poet.
1585 Domenico II Contarini the 104th Doge of Venice, reigning from his election on October 16, 1659 until his death.
1600 Pope Clement IX Pope from 20 June 1667 to his death in 1669.
1608 Giovanni Alfonso Borelli a Renaissance Italian physiologist, physicist, and mathematician. He contributed to the modern principle of scientific investigation by continuing Galileo's custom of testing hypotheses against observation. Trained in mathematics, Borelli also made extensive studies of Jupiter's moons, the mechanics of animal locomotion and, in microscopy, of the constituents of blood. He also used microscopy to investigate the stomatal movement of plants, and undertook studies in medicine and geology. During his career, he enjoyed the patronage of Queen Christina of Sweden
1611 Johannes Hevelius a councillor and mayor of Danzig , then part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. As an astronomer he gained a reputation as "the founder of lunar topography" and described ten new constellations, seven of which are still recognized by astronomers
1622 Adrien Auzout a French astronomer.
1693 Gregor Werner an Austrian composer.
1701 Charles Marie de La Condamine a French explorer, geographer, and mathematician. He spent ten years in present-day Ecuador measuring the length of a degree latitude at the equator and preparing the first map of the Amazon region based on astronomical observations. Furthermore he was a contributor to the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers
1706 John Baskerville best remembered as a printer and type designer.
1712 Tokugawa Ieshige the ninth shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan.
1724 Nathanael Matthaeus von Wolf a German botanist, physician, and astronomer.
1726 Laurent Angliviel de la Beaumelle a French Protestant writer.
1755 Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring a German physician, anatomist, anthropologist, paleontologist and inventor. Sömmerring discovered the macula in the retina of the human eye. His investigations on the brain and the nervous system, on the sensory organs, on the embryo and its malformations, on the structure of the lungs, etc., made him one of the most important German anatomists
1757 Antonio Bartolomeo Bruni an Italian violinist, composer and conductor. Bruni was born and died in Cuneo, Italy. During most of his life he resided, played and composed in Paris
1761 Marguerite Gérard a French painter and etcher. She was the daughter of Marie Gilette and perfumer Claude Gérard. At 8 years-old she became the sister-in-law of Jean-Honoré Fragonard, and when she was 14, she came to live with him. She was also the aunt of the artist Alexandre-Évariste Fragonard. Gérard became Fragonard's pupil in the mid-1770s and studied painting, drawing and printmaking under his tutelage. She appears to have executed five etchings in 1778 in collaboration with the master
1768 Frederick VI of Denmark King of Denmark from 13 March 1808 to 3 December 1839 and King of Norway from 13 March 1808 to 7 February 1814. From 1784 until his accession, he served as regent during his father's mental illness and was referred to as the "Crown Prince Regent"
1784 George Hamilton-Gordon 4th Earl of Aberdeen a British politician, diplomat and landowner, successively a Tory, Conservative and Peelite, who served as Prime Minister from 1852 until 1855 in a coalition between the Whigs and Peelites, with Radical and Irish support. The Aberdeen ministry was filled with powerful and talented politicians, whom Aberdeen was largely unable to control and direct. Despite trying to avoid this happening, it took Britain into the Crimean War, and fell when its conduct became unpopular, after which Aberdeen retired from politics
1786 Nathaniel Wallich a surgeon and botanist of Danish origin who worked in India, initially in the Danish settlement near Calcutta and later for the East India Company. He was involved in the early development of the Calcutta Botanical Garden, describing many new plant species and developing a large herbarium collection which was distributed to collections in Europe. Several of the plants that he collected were named after him
1791 James Stirling (Royal Navy officer) a British naval officer and colonial administrator. His enthusiasm and persistence persuaded the British Government to establish the Swan River Colony and he became the first Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Western Australia. In 1854, when Commander-in-Chief, East Indies and China Station, Stirling on his own initiative signed Britain's first Anglo-Japanese Friendship Treaty. Throughout his career Stirling showed considerable diplomatic skill and was selected for a number of sensitive missions. Paradoxically, this was not reflected in his personal dealings with officialdom and his hopes for preferment received many rebuffs
1791 Ferdinand Hérold a French operatic composer of Alsatian descent who also wrote many pieces for the piano, orchestra, and the ballet. He is best known today for the ballet La fille mal gardée and the overture to the opera Zampa
1793 Jacques Collin de Plancy a French occultist, demonologist and writer; he published several works on occultism and demonology.
1794 Princess Louise of Saxe-Hildburghausen a member of the House of Saxe-Hildburghausen and a Princess of Saxe-Hildburghausen by birth. Through her marriage to William, Duke of Nassau, Louise was also a member of the House of Nassau-Weilburg and Duchess consort of Nassau. Louise was briefly Princess consort of Nassau-Weilburg in 1816
1797 Narcisse Girard a French violinist, conductor and composer.
1800 Friedrich August Stüler an influential Prussian architect and builder. His masterpiece is the Neues Museum in Berlin, as well as the dome of the triumphal arch of the main portal of the Berliner Stadtschloss
1805 Jules-Romain Tardieu a French writer, publisher and bookseller.
1806 Hermann Brockhaus a German Orientalist born in Amsterdam. He was a leading authority on Sanskrit and Persian languages. He was the son of publisher Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus and brother-in-law to composer Richard Wagner
1807 Robert McClure an Irish explorer of the Arctic. In 1854, he was the first to transit the Northwest Passage , as well as the first to circumnavigate the Americas
1808 Jean Joseph François Poujoulat a French historian and journalist.
1809 Theodor Benfey a German philologist and the son of a Jewish trader from Nörten in Lower Saxony. In 1834 he became a Privatdozent at the University of Göttingen, teaching Sanskrit and Comparative Grammar
1812 Ilija Garašanin a Serbian politician and statesman, serving as Interior Minister and Prime Minister.
1815 Andrew Jackson Hamilton a United States politician during the third quarter of the 19th century. He was a lawyer, state representative, military governor of Texas, as well as the 11th Governor of Texas during Reconstruction
1818 George S. Boutwell an American statesman who served as Secretary of the Treasury under President Ulysses Grant, the 20th Governor of Massachusetts, a Senator and Representative from Massachusetts and the first Commissioner of Internal Revenue under President Abraham Lincoln.
1822 Alexander Mackenzie the second Prime Minister of Canada from November 7, 1873 to October 8, 1878.
1823 Moritz Schiff a German physiologist.
1825 Benedetto Cairoli an Italian statesman.
1828 Thomas C. Hindman a lawyer, United States Representative from the 1st Congressional District of Arkansas, and a Major General in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.
1831 Emil Rostrup a Danish botanist, mycologist and plant pathologist.
1832 Franz Wüllner a German composer and conductor. He led the premieres of Richard Wagner's operas Das Rheingold and Die Walküre, but was much criticized by Wagner himself, who greatly preferred the more celebrated conductors Hans von Bülow and Hermann Levi