Born on January 3

106 Cicero a Roman philosopher, politician, lawyer, orator, political theorist, consul and constitutionalist. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the Roman equestrian order, and is widely considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists
1194 Emperor Tsuchimikado the 83rd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1290 Constance of Portugal a Portuguese infanta , daughter of King Denis of Portugal and his wife Saint Elizabeth of Aragon. She was born on January 3, 1290 and became Queen consort of Castile when she married King Ferdinand IV of Castile
1307 Otto IV Duke of Lower Bavaria a Duke of Lower Bavaria.
1541 John Clerk (bishop) an English bishop. He was educated at Cambridge University, and went on to serve under Cardinal Wolsey in a variety of capacities. He was also useful in a diplomatic capacity to both Wolsey and Henry VIII of England
1591 Valentin de Boulogne a French painter in the tenebrist style.
1603 Paul Stockmann a German academic, preacher and hymn-writer. He fought at the Battle of Lützen in 1632 and later served as court preacher to Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, before dying of the plague in 1636
1611 James Harrington (author) an English political theorist of classical republicanism, best known for his controversial work, The Commonwealth of Oceana. This work was an exposition on an ideal constitution, designed to facilitate the development of a utopian republic
1642 Diego Morcillo Rubio de Auñón a Spanish bishop in Peru and twice viceroy of the colony, from August 15, 1716 to October 5, 1716 and from January 26, 1720 to May 14, 1724.
1642 Hans Wachtmeister admiral general of the Swedish Navy and advisor to King Charles XI of Sweden and King Charles XII of Sweden. He served in the Scanian War of 1675–1679 and during the following twenty years of peace worked to build up the Swedish Navy. When the Great Northern War began in 1700 he was able to take his fleet to sea in good condition
1693 Matthew Hutton (archbishop of Canterbury) a high churchman in the Church of England, serving as Archbishop of York and Archbishop of Canterbury. He was a direct descendant of Matthew Hutton, who served as Archbishop of York in the 17th century
1694 Paul of the Cross an Italian mystic, and founder of the Passionists.
1698 Metastasio an Italian poet and librettist, considered the most important writer of opera seria libretti.
1710 Richard Gridley born in Boston, Massachusetts. He was a soldier and engineer who served for the British Army during the French and Indian Wars and for the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War
1719 Francisco José Freire born at Lisbon.
1722 Fredrik Hasselqvist a Swedish traveller and naturalist.
1737 Heinrich Wilhelm von Gerstenberg a German poet and critic.
1743 Joseph-Benoît Suvée a Flemish painter strongly influenced by French neo-classicism.
1744 Ippolit Bogdanovich a Russian classicist author of light poetry, best known for his long poem Dushenka.
1752 Johannes von Müller a Swiss historian.
1756 Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve a French writer and politician who served as the second mayor of Paris, from 1791 to 1792.
1760 Veerapandiya Kattabomman a courageous 18th-century Palayakarrar chieftain from Panchalankurichi of Tamil Nadu, India. His ancestors migrated to Tamil Nadu from Kandukur area of Prakasam district in present day Andhra Pradesh during the Vijayanagara period. Also known as Kattabomma Nayakkar he was among the earliest to oppose British rule in these regions. He waged a war with the British six decades before the Indian War of Independence occurred in the Northern parts of India. He was captured and hanged in 1799 His fort was destroyed and his wealth was looted by the British army. Today his native village Panchalankurichi in present day Thoothukudi district of Tamil Nadu is a historically important site. Some polygars families also migrated to vedal village in Kanchipuram District, India
1763 Joseph Fesch a French cardinal and diplomat, Prince of France and a member of the Imperial House of the First French Empire, Peer of France, Roman Prince, and the uncle of Napoleon Bonaparte. He was also one of the most famous art collectors of his period, remembered for having established the Musée Fesch in Ajaccio, which remains one of the most important Napoleonic collections of art
1766 Antoine Guillaume Delmas a French Revolutionary and Napoleonic general.
1767 Charles-Marie de Féletz a French churchman, journalist and literary critic.
1771 Louis Pierre Édouard Baron Bignon a French diplomat and historian.
1777 Elisa Bonaparte the fourth surviving child and eldest surviving daughter of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino. A younger sister of Napoleon Bonaparte, she had elder brothers Joseph and Lucien, and younger siblings Louis, Pauline, Caroline and Jerome
1778 Antoni Melchior Fijałkowski the Archbishop Metropolitan of Warsaw and spiritual leader of the nation during the Partitions of Poland.
1780 Michael Thomas Sadler a British Tory Member of Parliament whose Evangelical Anglicanism and prior experience as a Poor Law administrator in Leeds led him to oppose Malthusian theories of population and their use to decry state provision for the poor. He entered the British House of Commons at the behest of the 4th Duke of Newcastle, returned by the pocket borough of Newark as an 'Ultra' opponent of Catholic emancipation, but he devoted much effort in Parliament to urging the extension of the Poor Law to Ireland. In 1832, in the last session of the unreformed House of Commons he brought forward a Bill to regulate the minimum age and maximum working hours of children in the textile industry. He chaired a Select Committee on the Bill which heard evidence from witnesses on overwork and ill-treatment of factory children. No legislation had resulted before the Reform Act passed and in the election which followed Sadler stood for Leeds but failed to be elected. Parliamentary leadership of the factory reform movement passed to Lord Ashley. Publication of the evidence gathered by Sadler's Select Committee had a considerable effect on public opinion: the effect of Sadler's Bill and Committee on the Whig government was to persuade them that new factory legislation was required but that this should be based upon evidence gathered on a sounder basis. When he died, contemporaries mentioned his work on Ireland, population, and poverty as well as his ten-hour bill, but only the latter is now remembered
1786 Friedrich Schneider a German pianist, composer and conductor.
1789 Carl Gustav Carus a German physiologist and painter, born in Leipzig, who played various roles during the Romantic era. A friend of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, he was a many-sided man: a doctor, a naturalist, a scientist, a psychologist, and a landscape painter who studied under Caspar David Friedrich
1793 Lucretia Mott an American Quaker, abolitionist, a women's rights activist, and a social reformer.
1794 Joseph Lebeau a Belgian liberal politician and statesman, the second Prime Minister.
1797 Frederick William Hope an English entomologist and founder of the Hope Department of Entomology at the University of Oxford.
1802 Félix Dupanloup Mgr. Félix Antoine Philibert Dupanloup was a French ecclesiastic
1802 Charles Pelham Villiers a British lawyer and politician from the Villiers family who sat in the House of Commons from 1835 to 1898, making him the longest-serving Member of Parliament.
1803 Douglas William Jerrold an English dramatist and writer.
1803 Guglielmo Gasparrini an Italian botanist and mycologist.
1804 Friedrich Wilhelm Schultz a German pharmacist and botanist who was a native of Zweibrücken.
1806 Henriette Sontag a German operatic soprano of great international renown. She possessed a sweet-toned, lyrical voice and was a brilliant exponent of florid singing
1809 Bogusław Fryderyk Radziwiłł a Polish nobleman and Prussian military officer and politician. At the time Poland was partitioned, he lived in the Kingdom of Prussia, where he was a member of the Prussian parliament. He attained the rank of general within the Prussian Army
1810 Antoine Thomson d'Abbadie a French explorer, geographer, ethnologist, linguist and astronomer notable for his travels in Ethiopia during the first half of the 19th century. He was the older brother of Arnaud Michel d'Abbadie, with whom he traveled
1812 Elisha M. Pease a Texas politician. He served as the fifth and thirteenth governor of Texas
1815 Cesare Correnti an Italian revolutionary and politician.
1816 Samuel C. Pomeroy an American Republican Senator from Kansas in the mid-19th century, serving in the United States Senate during the American Civil War. Pomeroy served in the Massachusetts House of Representatives. He also was the mayor of Atchison, Kansas, from 1858 to 1859, the second president of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad and the first president to oversee any of the railroad's construction and operations. Pomeroy succeeded Cyrus Holliday as president of the railroad on January 13, 1864
1819 Charles Piazzi Smyth Astronomer Royal for Scotland from 1846 to 1888, well known for many innovations in astronomy and his pyramidological and metrological studies of the Great Pyramid of Giza.
1821 Karel Dežman a Carniolan liberal politician and natural scientist. He was one of the most prominent personalities of the political, cultural, and scientific developments in the 19th century Duchy of Carniola. He is considered one of the fathers of modern archeology in what is today Slovenia. He also made important contributions in botany, zoology, mineralogy, geology and mineralogy. He was the first director of the Provincial Museum of Carniola, now the National Museum of Slovenia. Due to his switch from Slovene liberal nationalism to Austrian centralism and pro-German cultural stances, he became a symbol of national renegadism
1823 Robert Whitehead an English engineer, most famous for developing the first effective self-propelled naval torpedo.
1823 Heinrich Gustav Reichenbach a botanist and the foremost German orchidologist of the 19th century. His father Heinrich Gottlieb Ludwig Reichenbach was also a well-known botanist
1823 Jacques-Nicolas Lemmens an organist and composer for his instrument.