Died on January 3

236 Pope Anterus the Bishop of Rome from 21 November 235 to his death in 236. He succeeded Pope Pontian, who had been deported from Rome to Sardinia, along with the antipope Hippolytus
323 Emperor Yuan of Jin an emperor of the Jin Dynasty and the first of the Eastern Jin. His reign saw the steady gradual loss of Jin territory in the north, but entrenchment of Jin authority south of the Huai River and east of the Three Gorges, and for generations Jin was not seriously threatened by Wu Hu kingdoms to the north
492 Pope Felix III Pope from 13 March 483 to his death in 492. His repudiation of the Henoticon is considered the beginning of the Acacian schism
1028 Fujiwara no Michinaga represents the highpoint of the Fujiwara clan's control over the government of Japan.
1098 Walkelin the first Norman bishop of Winchester.
1225 Adolf III of Holstein the ruler of the Counties of Schauenburg and Holstein. He is particularly remembered for his establishment of a new settlement for traders on the banks of the Alster near the Neue Burg in Hamburg
1241 Hermann II Landgrave of Thuringia the Landgrave of Thuringia and the son of Louis IV, Landgrave of Thuringia, and Saint Elizabeth of Hungary.
1322 Philip V of France King of France, King of Navarre as Philip II, and Count of Champagne. He reigned from 1316 to his death and was the penultimate monarch of the main line of the House of Capet
1437 Catherine of Valois the Queen consort of England from 1420 until 1422. She was the daughter of Charles VI of France, wife of Henry V of England, mother of Henry VI of England, and through her secret marriage with Owen Tudor, the grandmother of Henry VII of England. Catherine's older sister Isabella was queen of England from 1396 until 1399, as the child bride of Richard II
1474 Pietro Riario an Italian cardinal and Papal diplomat.
1489 Martin Truchseß von Wetzhausen the 34th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1477-1489.
1497 Beatrice d'Este the wife of the Milanese ruler Ludovico Sforza. She was one of the most beautiful and accomplished princesses of the Italian Renaissance. A member of the Este family, she was the younger daughter of Ercole I d'Este and the sister of Isabella d'Este and Alfonso d'Este. Along with her sister, Beatrice was noted for her excellent taste in fashion and for having invented new clothing styles
1501 Ali-Shir Nava'i a Central Asian Turkic poet, writer, politician, linguist, mystic, and painter. He was the greatest representative of Chagatai language literature
1543 Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo a Portuguese explorer noted for his exploration of the west coast of North America on behalf of Spain. Cabrillo was the first European explorer to navigate the coast of present day California in the United States
1571 Joachim II Hector Elector of Brandenburg a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg. A member of the House of Hohenzollern, Joachim II was the son of Joachim I Nestor, Elector of Brandenburg, and his wife Elizabeth of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden
1631 Michelagnolo Galilei an Italian composer and lutenist of the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras, active mainly in Bavaria and Poland. He was the son of music theorist and lutenist Vincenzo Galilei, and the younger brother of the renowned astronomer Galileo Galilei
1641 Jeremiah Horrocks an English astronomer. He was the first person to demonstrate that the Moon moved around the Earth in an elliptical orbit; and he was the only person to predict the transit of Venus of 1639, an event which he and his friend William Crabtree were the only two people to observe and record
1656 Mathieu Molé a French statesman.
1670 George Monck 1st Duke of Albemarle an English soldier, a politician and was the key figure in effecting the Restoration of the Monarchy to King Charles II in 1660.
1682 Olaus Verelius held to have been the founder of the Hyperborean School which led to Gothicism.
1699 Mattia Preti an Italian Baroque artist who worked in Italy and Malta.
1701 Louis I Prince of Monaco Prince of Monaco from 1662 until 1701.
1743 Ferdinando Galli-Bibiena an Italian Baroque-era architect, designer, and painter.
1745 Jean de Bodt a Baroque architect of the 18th century.
1779 Claude Bourgelat a French veterinary surgeon.
1785 Baldassare Galuppi an Italian composer, born on the island of Burano in the Venetian Republic. He belonged to a generation of composers, including Christoph Willibald Glück, Domenico Scarlatti, and CPE Bach, whose works comprised the transition from Baroque to Classical-era music. He achieved international success, spending periods of his career in Vienna, London and Saint Petersburg, but his main base remained Venice, where he held a succession of leading appointments
1795 Josiah Wedgwood credited with the industrialisation of the manufacture of pottery. A prominent abolitionist, Wedgwood is remembered for his "Am I Not a Man And a Brother?" anti-slavery medallion. He was a member of the Darwin–Wedgwood family. He was the grandfather of Charles Darwin and Emma Darwin
1809 Henri-Pierre Danloux a French painter and draftsman.
1813 Bennelong a senior man of the Eora, an Aboriginal people of the Port Jackson area, at the time of the first British settlement in Australia, in 1788. Bennelong served as an interlocutor between the Eora and the British, both in Sydney and in the United Kingdom
1818 Matvei Platov a Russian general who commanded the Don Cossacks in the Napoleonic wars and founded Novocherkassk as the new capital of the Don Host Province.
1822 Johann Christian von Mannlich a German painter and architect.
1823 Johann Baptist Allgaier a German-Austrian chess master and theoretician. He was also the author of the first chess handbook in German – Neue theoretisch-praktische Anweisung zum Schachspiel
1823 Jean Joseph Amable Humbert a French soldier, a participant in the French Revolution, who led a failed invasion of Ireland to assist Irish rebels in 1798. Born in the townland of La Coâre Saint-Nabord, outside Remiremont Vosges, he was a sergeant in the National Guard of Lyon, and rapidly advanced through the ranks to become brigadier general on 9 April 1794, and fought in the Western campaigns before being allocated to the Army of the Rhine
1826 Louis-Gabriel Suchet a Marshal of France and one of Napoleon's most brilliant generals.
1826 Nikolay Rumyantsev Russia's Foreign Minister and Imperial Chancellor in the run-up to Napoleon's invasion of Russia. He was the son of Field Marshal Pyotr Zadunaisky from the Rumyantsev comital family
1838 Maximilian Hereditary Prince of Saxony German prince and a member of the House of Wettin.
1850 Giuseppina Grassini a noted Italian contralto, and a singing teacher. She was also a lover of both Napoleon and the Duke of Wellington
1854 Adolphe Delattre a French ornithologist.
1857 Marie-Dominique-Auguste Sibour a French Catholic Archbishop of Paris.
1858 Henry Darcy a French engineer who made several important contributions to hydraulics.
1858 Rachel Félix a French actress.
1861 Arnold Adolph Berthold a German physiologist and zoologist. He studied medicine in Göttingen in 1819 and wrote his thesis under the direction of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach. Berthold became a private lecturer in 1825 and began to teach physiology at the University of Göttingen where he spent the rest of his career. He is known as a pioneer in endocrinology due to his experiments on the role of the gonads in the development of secondary sexual characteristics. He published important works on reptiles and amphibians as well as on avian physiology. In the field of entomology, he authored Natürliche Familien des Tierreichs
1864 John Hughes (archbishop of New York) an Irish-born prelate of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States. He was the fourth Bishop and first Archbishop of the Archdiocese of New York, serving between 1842 and his death in 1864
1864 William Behnes an English sculptor of the early 19th century.
1868 Moritz Hauptmann a German music theorist, teacher and composer.
1870 George Samuel Perrottet a Swiss-born, French botanist and horticulturalist who was a native of Vully, canton Vaud.
1871 Kuriakose Elias Chavara a Syrian Catholic saint and social reformer from the Indian state of Kerala. He is the second canonised saint of the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church, an Eastern Catholic Church of the Saint Thomas Christian community founded by Thomas the Apostle in the first century. He was the co-founder and first Prior General of the first congregation for men in the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church, now known as the Carmelites of Mary Immaculate, and of a similar one for women, the Congregation of the Mother of Carmel
1871 Konstantin Ushinsky a Russian teacher and writer, credited as the founder of scientific pedagogy in Russia.
1875 Pierre Larousse a French grammarian, lexicographer and encyclopaedist. He published many of the outstanding educational and reference works of 19th-century France, including the 15 volume Grand dictionnaire universel du XIXe siècle
1876 Nikolay Karlovich Krabbe an admiral of the Russian Imperial Navy.