January 3 events in history

1431 Joan of Arc is defeated by Bishop Pierre Cauchon
1521 Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem
1653 By the Coonan Cross Oath, the Eastern Church in India cuts itself off from colonial Portuguese tutelage
1749 Benning Wentworth issues the first of the New Hampshire Grants, leading to the establishment of Vermont
1749 The first issue of Berlingske, Denmark's oldest continually operating newspaper, is published
1777 American General George Washington defeats British General Lord Cornwallis at the Battle of Princeton
1815 Austria, the United Kingdom, and France form a secret defensive alliance against Prussia and Russia
1823 Stephen F. Austin receives a grant of land in Texas from the government of Mexico
1848 Joseph Jenkins Roberts is sworn in as the first president of the independent African Liberia
1861 American Civil War: Delaware votes not to secede from the United States
1868 Meiji Restoration in Japan: The Tokugawa shogunate is abolished; agents of Satsuma and Chōshū seize power
1870 Construction of the Brooklyn Bridge begins
1885 Sino-French War: Beginning of the Battle of Núi Bop
1888 The refracting telescope at the Lick Observatory, measuring 91 cm in diameter, is used for the first time. It was the largest telescope in the world at the time
1911 A magnitude 7.7 earthquake destroys the city of Almaty in Russian Turkestan
1919 At the Paris Peace Conference, Emir Faisal I of Iraq signs an agreement with Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann on the development of a Jewish homeland in Palestine and an Arab nation in a large part of the Middle East
1925 Benito Mussolini announces he is taking dictatorial powers over Italy
1932 Martial law is declared in Honduras to stop a revolt by banana workers fired by the United Fruit Company
1933 Minnie D. Craig becomes the first female elected as Speaker of the North Dakota House of Representatives, the first female to hold a Speaker position anywhere in the United States
1938 The March of Dimes is established by President Franklin D. Roosevelt
1944 World War II: Top Ace Major Greg "Pappy" Boyington is shot down in his Vought F4U Corsair by Captain Masajiro Kawato flying a Mitsubishi A6M Zero
1945 World War II: Admiral Chester W. Nimitz is placed in command of all U.S. Naval forces in preparation for planned assaults against Iwo Jima and Okinawa in Japan
1946 Popular Canadian American jockey George Woolf dies in a freak accident during a race; the annual George Woolf Memorial Jockey Award is created to honor him
1947 Proceedings of the U.S. Congress are televised for the first time
1949 The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, the central bank of the Philippines, is established
1953 Frances P. Bolton and her son, Oliver from Ohio, become the first mother and son to serve simultaneously in the U.S. Congress
1956 A fire damages the top part of the Eiffel Tower
1957 The Hamilton Watch Company introduces the first electric watch
1958 The West Indies Federation is formed
1959 Separatists in the Maldives declare the establishment of the United Suvadive Republic
1959 Alaska is admitted as the 49th U.S. state
1961 In Finland's worst civilian aviation accident an Aero Flight 311 crashes near Kvevlax, resulting in the deaths of all 25 people aboard
1961 A core explosion and meltdown at the SL-1, a government-run reactor near Idaho Falls, Idaho, kills three workers
1961 The United States severs diplomatic relations with Cuba over the latter's nationalization of American assets
1962 Pope John XXIII excommunicates Fidel Castro
1976 The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights comes into effect
1977 Apple Computer is incorporated
1990 Former leader of Panama Manuel Noriega surrenders to American forces
1993 In Moscow, Russia, George Bush and Boris Yeltsin sign the second Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START)
1994 More than seven million people from the former Apartheid Homelands, receive South African citizenship
1996 The Motorola StarTAC, the first flip phone and one of the first mobile phones to gain widespread consumer adoption, goes on sale
1997 China announces it will spend US$27.7 billion to fight erosion and pollution in the Yangtze and Yellow River valleys
1999 Israel detains, and later expels, 14 members of Concerned Christians
1999 The Mars Polar Lander is launched
2000 The last original weekday Peanuts comic strip is published
2002 Israeli forces seize the Palestinian freighter Karine A in the Red Sea, finding 50 tons of weapons
2004 Flash Airlines Flight 604 crashes into the Red Sea, resulting in 148 deaths, making it the deadliest aviation accident in Egyptian history
2009 The first block of the blockchain of the decentralized payment system Bitcoin, called the Genesis block, was established by the creator of the system, Satoshi Nakamoto