Died on January 30

680 Balthild the wife and queen of Clovis II, the king of Burgundy and Neustria. Her hagiography was intended to further her successful candidature for sainthood
970 Peter I of Bulgaria emperor of Bulgaria from 27 May 927 to 969.
1039 Sophia I Abbess of Gandersheim an Ottonian princess who was Abbess of Gandersheim from 1002, and from 1011 Abbess of Essen. She was an important kingmaker of medieval Germany
1164 William FitzEmpress the youngest of the three sons of Geoffrey, Count of Anjou and Empress Matilda, daughter of King Henry I of England.
1181 Emperor Takakura the 80th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1168 through 1180
1230 Pelagio Galvani a Leonese Cardinal, and canon lawyer. He became a papal legate and leader of the Fifth Crusade
1344 William Montagu 1st Earl of Salisbury an English nobleman and loyal servant of King Edward III.
1384 Louis II Count of Flanders Count of Flanders, Nevers and Rethel from 1346 as well as Count of Artois and Burgundy from 1382 until his death.
1556 Sebestyén Tinódi Lantos a 16th-century Hungarian lyricist, epic poet, political historian, and minstrel.
1574 Damião de Góis an important Portuguese humanist philosopher. He was a friend and student of Erasmus. He was appointed secretary to the Portuguese factory in Antwerp in 1523 by King John III of Portugal. He compiled one of the first accounts on Ethiopian Christianity
1584 Pieter Pourbus Jansz. Pourbus was a Dutch-born Flemish Renaissance painter
1606 Robert and Thomas Wintour also spelt Winter, were members of the Gunpowder Plot, a failed conspiracy to assassinate King James Both were related to other conspirators, such as their cousin, Robert Catesby, and a half-brother, John Wintour, also joined them following the plot's failure. Thomas was an intelligent and educated man, fluent in several languages and trained as a lawyer, but chose instead to become a soldier, fighting for England in the Low Countries, France, and possibly in Central Europe. By 1600, however, he changed his mind and became a fervent Catholic. On several occasions he travelled to the continent and entreated Spain on behalf of England's oppressed Catholics, and suggested that with Spanish support a Catholic rebellion was likely
1606 Everard Digby a member of the group of provincial English Catholics who planned the failed Gunpowder Plot of 1605. Although he was raised in a Protestant household, and married a Protestant, Digby and his wife were converted to Catholicism by the Jesuit priest John Gerard. In the autumn of 1605 he was part of a Catholic pilgrimage to the shrine of St Winefride's Well in Holywell. About this time he met Robert Catesby, a religious fanatic who planned to blow up the House of Lords with gunpowder, killing James Catesby then planned to incite a popular revolt, during which a Catholic monarch would be restored to the English throne
1629 Carlo Maderno remembered as one of the fathers of Baroque architecture. His façades of Santa Susanna, Peter's Basilica and Sant'Andrea della Valle were of key importance in the evolution of the Italian Baroque. He is often referred to as the brother of sculptor Stefano Maderno, but this is not universally agreed upon
1644 William Chillingworth a controversial English churchman.
1649 Charles I of England monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
1652 Georges de La Tour a French Baroque painter, who spent most of his working life in the Duchy of Lorraine, which was temporarily absorbed into France between 1641 and 1648. He painted mostly religious chiaroscuro scenes lit by candlelight
1669 Paul of Aleppo a Ottoman Syrian Melkite clergyman and chronicler. Son of Patriarch Macarios III Zaim, Paul accompanied his father in his travels throughout Constantinople, Wallachia, Moldavia, Ukraine and Muscovy, as an attempt to raise funds and support for their Church
1678 Antonio de Pereda a Spanish Baroque-era painter, best known for his still lifes.
1716 Marie Casimire Louise de La Grange d'Arquien consort to King John III Sobieski, from 1674 to 1696.
1728 Countess Palatine Elisabeth Auguste Sofie of Neuburg the only surviving child of Charles III Philip, Elector Palatine. The Palatinate-Neuburg line went extinct with her father and was succeeded by the Palatinate-Sulzbach line. Her sons with Count Palatine Joseph Charles of Sulzbach would have been the indisputable heirs to the Electorate of the Palatinate, but they all died in infancy. She was the Hereditary Princess of Sulzbach by marriage
1730 Ludwik Pociej a Lithuanian nobleman, podkomorzy of Brest, podskarbi, castelan and voivode of Vilnius, Great and Field Hetman of Lithuania.
1730 Peter II of Russia the Emperor of Russia from 1727 until his death. He was the only son of Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich, son of Peter I of Russia by his first consort Eudoxia Lopukhina, and Princess Charlotte of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
1774 František Tůma an important Czech composer of the Baroque era. Born in Kostelec nad Orlici, Bohemia, he lived the greater part of his life in Vienna, first as director of music for Count Franz Ferdinand Kinsky, later filling a similar office for the widow of Emperor Karl He was an important late-baroque composer, organist, gambist and theorbist
1777 Enrichetta d'Este an Italian noblewoman. She was the Duchess of Parma by marriage to Antonio Farnese, Duke of Parma, who was her first cousin as well as an uncle of Elisabeth Farnese, Queen of Spain
1791 Claude-Carloman de Rulhière a French poet and historian.
1793 Alois Friedrich von Brühl a Polish-Saxon diplomat, politician, Freemason, soldier, actor and playwright.
1806 Vicente Martín y Soler a Spanish composer of opera and ballet. Although relatively obscure now, in his own day he was compared favorably with his contemporary, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, as a composer of opera buffa; in modern times, conversely, he has been called the Valencian Mozart
1820 Josepha Barbara Auernhammer an Austrian pianist and composer.
1826 Fyodor Rostopchin a Russian statesman, who served as governor of Moscow during the French invasion of Russia.
1830 Wilhelm Waiblinger a German romantic poet, mostly remembered today in connection with Friedrich Hölderlin. After he had attended Gymnasium Illustre in Stuttgart, he was a student at the seminary of Tübingen in the 1820s, when Hölderlin, already mentally ill, lived there as a recluse in a carpenter's house. Waiblinger, who used to visit the older poet and take him out for walks, left an account of Hölderlin's life then, Hölderlins Leben, Dichtung und Wahnsinn. In the late 1820s, Waiblinger left Tübingen for Italy, dying at the age of 25 in Rome, where he is buried in the Protestant Cemetery
1832 Artur Potocki a Polish nobleman.
1836 Betsy Ross widely credited with making the first American flag purportedly in 1776, according to family tradition, upon a visit from General George Washington, commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and changing the shape of the stars described on the flag from six-pointed to easier-to-produce five-pointed stars. However, there is no archival evidence or other verbal traditions that this story or "legend" of the first American flag is true and supposedly the story first surfaced in the early 1870s by the description of her descendents, , a century later with no mention being made or documented anywhere in earlier decades
1838 Osceola born as Billy Powell, became an influential leader of the Seminole in Florida. Of mixed parentage, Creek, Scots-Irish, and English, he was raised as a Creek by his mother, as the tribe had a matrilineal kinship system. They migrated to Florida when he was a child, with other Red Stick refugees, after their defeat in 1814 in the Creek Wars
1843 Friedrich von Adelung a German-Russian linguist, historian and bibliographer. His best known works are in the fields of bibliography of Sanskrit language and the European accounts of the Time of Troubles in Russia
1846 Joseph Constantine Carpue an English surgeon who was born in London. He was associated with St George's Hospital and Duke of York Hospital in Chelsea. He was a skilled surgeon and popular lecturer of anatomy
1847 Virginia Eliza Clemm Poe the wife of American writer Edgar Allan Poe. The couple were first cousins and married when Virginia Clemm was 13 and Poe was 27. Some biographers have suggested that the couple's relationship was more like that between brother and sister than like husband and wife in that they may have never consummated their marriage. In January 1842 she contracted tuberculosis, growing worse for five years until she died of the disease at the age of 24 in the family's cottage outside New York City
1847 Leontiy Spafaryev a Lieutenant General of the Imperial Russian Navy. Spafaryev was Director of the Lighthouse Administration and cartographer of the Russian Admiralty
1849 Jonathan Alder an American pioneer, and the first white settler in Madison County, Ohio. As a young child living in Virginia, Alder was kidnapped by Shawnee Indians, and later adopted by a Mingo chief in the Ohio Country. He lived with the Native Americans for many years before returning to the white community
1854 Jacob Peter Mynster a Danish theologian and Bishop of Zealand, Denmark from 1834 until his death.
1856 William Buckley (convict) an English convict who was transported to Australia, escaped, was given up for dead and lived in an Aboriginal community for many years.
1858 Coenraad Jacob Temminck a Dutch aristocrat, zoologist, and museum director.
1867 Heinrich Friedrich Theodor Kohlrausch a German educator and historian.
1867 Emperor Kōmei the 121st emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1868 Hermann Guido von Samson-Himmelstjerna a Baltic German physician and professor of Staatsarzneikunde.
1869 William Carleton an Irish writer and novelist. He is best known for his Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry a collection of ethnic sketches of the stereotypical Irishman
1872 Francis Rawdon Chesney a British general and explorer.
1876 Therese Grünbaum an Austrian soprano and opera singer.
1881 Arthur O'Shaughnessy a British poet and herpetologist of Irish descent, born in London. He is most remembered for his ode beginning with the words "We are the music makers, /And we are the dreamers of dreams" which has been set to music several times
1881 Jacques-Nicolas Lemmens an organist and composer for his instrument.