January 30 events in history

1018 The Peace of Bautzen is signed between Poland and Germany
1607 An estimated 200 square miles (51,800 ha) along the coasts of the Bristol Channel and Severn Estuary in the Kingdom of England are destroyed by massive flooding, resulting in an estimated 2,000 deaths
1648 Eighty Years' War: The Treaty of Münster and Osnabrück is signed, ending the conflict between the Netherlands and Spain
1649 King Charles I of England is beheaded
1661 Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England is ritually executed two years after his death, on the anniversary of the execution of the monarch he himself deposed
1667 The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth cedes Kiev, Smolensk, and left-bank Ukraine to the Tsardom of Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo
1703 The Forty-seven Ronin, under the command of Ōishi Kuranosuke, avenge the death of their master
1790 The first boat specializing as a lifeboat is tested on the River Tyne
1806 The original Lower Trenton Bridge (also called the Trenton Makes the World Takes Bridge), which spans the Delaware River between Morrisville, Pennsylvania and Trenton, New Jersey, is opened
1820 Edward Bransfield sights the Trinity Peninsula and claims the discovery of Antarctica
1826 The Menai Suspension Bridge, considered the world's first modern suspension bridge, connecting the Isle of Anglesey to the north West coast of Wales, is opened
1835 In the first assassination attempt against a President of the United States, Richard Lawrence attempts to shoot president Andrew Jackson, but fails and is subdued by a crowd, including several congressmen
1841 A fire destroys two-thirds of Mayagüez, Puerto Rico
1847 Yerba Buena, California is renamed San Francisco
1858 The first Hallé concert is given in Manchester, England, marking the official founding of The Hallé orchestra as a full-time, professional orchestra
1862 The first American ironclad warship, the USS Monitor is launched
1889 Archduke Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria, heir to the Austro-Hungarian crown, is found dead with his mistress Baroness Mary Vetsera in the Mayerling
1902 The first Anglo-Japanese Alliance is signed in London
1908 Indian pacifist and leader Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi is released from prison by Jan C. Smuts after being tried and sentenced to 2 months in jail earlier in the month
1911 The destroyer USS Terry makes the first airplane rescue at sea saving the life of James McCurdy 10 miles from Havana, Cuba
1911 The Canadian Naval Service becomes the Royal Canadian Navy
1913 The British House of Lords rejects the Irish Home Rule Bill
1925 The Government of Turkey throws Patriarch Constantine VI out of Istanbul
1933 Adolf Hitler is sworn in as Chancellor of Germany
1942 World War II: Japanese forces invade the island of Ambon in the Dutch East Indies
1943 World War II: Second day of the Battle of Rennell Island. The USS Chicago is sunk and a U.S. destroyer is heavily damaged by Japanese torpedoes
1944 World War II: The Battle of Cisterna, part of Operation Shingle, begins in central Italy
1944 World War II: American troops land on Majuro, Marshall Islands
1945 World War II: The Wilhelm Gustloff, overfilled with German refugees, sinks in the Baltic Sea after being torpedoed by a Soviet submarine, killing approximately 9,500 people in what is the deadliest known maritime disaster
1945 World War II: Raid at Cabanatuan — 126 American Rangers and Filipino resistance fighters liberate over 500 Allied prisoners from the Japanese-controlled Cabanatuan POW camp
1948 Mahatma Gandhi known for his non-violent freedom struggle, is assassinated by Nathuram Godse, a Hindu extremist
1956 African-American civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr.'s home is bombed in retaliation for the Montgomery Bus Boycott
1959 MS Hans Hedtoft, said to be the safest ship afloat and "unsinkable" like the RMS Titanic, strikes an iceberg on her maiden voyage and sinks, killing all 95 aboard
1960 The African National Party is founded in Chad, through the merger of traditionalist parties
1964 Ranger program: Ranger 6 is launched
1964 In a bloodless coup, General Nguyễn Khánh overthrows General Dương Văn Minh's military junta in South Vietnam
1965 Some 1 million people attend former Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill's funeral, the biggest in the United Kingdom up to that point
1968 Vietnam War: Tet Offensive launch by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army against South Vietnam, the United States, and their allies
1969 The Beatles' last public performance, on the roof of Apple Records in London. The impromptu concert is broken up by the police
1971 Carole King's Tapestry album is released to become the longest charting album by a female solo artist and sell 24 million copies worldwide
1972 The Troubles: Bloody Sunday — British Paratroopers open fire on and kill fourteen unarmed civil rights/anti-internment marchers in Derry, Northern Ireland
1972 Pakistan withdraws from the Commonwealth of Nations
1975 The Monitor National Marine Sanctuary is established as the first United States National Marine Sanctuary
1979 A Varig 707-323C freighter, flown by the same commander as Flight 820, disappears over the Pacific Ocean 30 minutes after taking off from Tokyo
1982 Richard Skrenta writes the first PC virus code, which is 400 lines long and disguised as an Apple boot program called "Elk Cloner"
1989 Closure of the American embassy in Kabul, Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
1994 Péter Lékó becomes the youngest chess grandmaster
1995 Workers from the National Institutes of Health announce the success of clinical trials testing the first preventive treatment for sickle-cell disease
2000 Off the coast of Ivory Coast, Kenya Airways Flight 431 crashes into the Atlantic Ocean, killing 169
2013 Naro-1 becomes the first carrier rocket launched by South Korea