Born on January 31

36 Antonia Minor the younger of two daughters of Mark Antony and Octavia Minor. She was a niece of the Emperor Augustus, sister-in-law of the Emperor Tiberius, paternal grandmother of the Emperor Caligula and Empress Agrippina the Younger, mother of the Emperor Claudius, and both maternal great-grandmother and paternal great-aunt of the Emperor Nero. She was additionally the maternal great-aunt of the Empress Valeria Messalina and Faustus Cornelius Sulla Felix, and paternal grandmother of Claudia Antonia, Claudia Octavia, and Britannicus
877 Taejo of Goryeo the founder of the Goryeo Dynasty, which ruled Korea from the 10th to the 14th century. Taejo ruled from 918 to 943
1512 Henry King of Portugal King of Portugal and the Algarves and a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He ruled Portugal between 1578 and 1580, and was known as Henry the Chaste
1543 Tokugawa Ieyasu the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Ieyasu seized power in 1600, received appointment as shogun in 1603, abdicated from office in 1605, but remained in power until his death in 1616. His given name is sometimes spelled Iyeyasu, according to the historical pronunciation of Ieyasu was posthumously enshrined at Nikkō Tōshō-gū with the name Tōshō Daigongen
1597 John Francis Regis a French priest of the Society of Jesus, recognized as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church. His feast day is 16 June
1607 James Stanley 7th Earl of Derby a supporter of the Royalist cause in the English Civil War. Before inheriting the title in 1642 he was known as Lord Strange. In the Isle of Man, as Lord of Mann, he was known as "Yn Stanlagh Mooar"
1624 Arnold Geulincx a Flemish philosopher. He was one of the followers of René Descartes who tried to work out more detailed versions of a generally Cartesian philosophy. Samuel Beckett cited Geulincx as a key influence and interlocutor because of Geulincx's emphasis on the powerlessness and ignorance of the human condition
1673 Louis de Montfort a French Roman Catholic priest and Confessor. He was known in his time as a preacher and was made a missionary apostolic by Pope Clement XI
1686 Hans Egede a Dano-Norwegian Lutheran missionary who launched mission efforts to Greenland, which led him to be styled the Apostle of Greenland. He established a successful mission among the Inuit and is credited with revitalizing Dano-Norwegian interest in the island after contact had been broken for hundreds of years. He founded Greenland's capital Godthåb, now known as Nuuk
1723 Petronella Johanna de Timmerman a Dutch poet and scientist.
1729 Pehr Löfling a Swedish botanist and an apostle of Carl Linnaeus.
1741 Theodor Gottlieb von Hippel the Elder a German satirical and humorous writer.
1746 Frederick Louis Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen a Prussian general.
1752 Gouverneur Morris an American statesman, a Founding Father of the United States, and a native of New York City who represented Pennsylvania in the Constitutional Convention of 1787. He was a signatory to the Articles of Confederation. Morris was also an author of large sections of the Constitution of the United States and one of its signers. He is widely credited as the author of the document's preamble, and has been called the "Penman of the Constitution." In an era when most Americans thought of themselves as citizens of their respective states, Morris advanced the idea of being a citizen of a single union of states
1756 Princess Maria Theresa of Savoy a princess of Savoy by birth and the wife of Charles Philippe, Count of Artois, grandson of Louis XV and younger brother of Louis XVI. Some nineteen years after her death, her husband assumed the throne of France as King Charles X
1759 François Devienne a French composer and professor for flute at the Paris Conservatory.
1762 Lachlan Macquarie a British Army officer and colonial administrator from Scotland. He served as the fifth and last autocratic Governor of New South Wales from 1810 to 1821, and had a leading role in the social, economic and architectural development of the colony. He is considered by historians to have had a crucial influence on the transition of New South Wales from a penal colony to a free settlement and therefore to have played a major role in the shaping of Australian society in the early nineteenth century. An inscription on his tomb in Scotland describes him as "The Father of Australia"
1767 Francesco Basili an Italian composer and conductor. He was born in Loreto and died in Rome
1769 André-Jacques Garnerin a balloonist and the inventor of the frameless parachute. He was appointed Official Aeronaut of France
1778 Franz Anton von Kolowrat-Liebsteinsky a Bohemian nobleman and an Austrian statesman.
1784 Pavel Kridener a Russian diplomat. He was the fourth Russian Ambassador to the United States, under John Quincy Adams
1784 Bernard Barton known as the Quaker poet.
1785 Henry Pelham-Clinton 4th Duke of Newcastle a British nobleman and politician who played a leading part in British politics in the late 1820s and early 1830s. He was styled Lord Clinton from birth until 1794 and Earl of Lincoln between 1794 and 1795
1785 Konstantin von Benckendorff a Russian general and diplomat.
1785 Charles Green (balloonist) the United Kingdom's most famous balloonist of the 19th century. He experimented with coal gas as a cheaper and more readily available alternative to hydrogen for lifting power. His first ascent was in a coal gas balloon on 19 July 1821. He became a professional balloonist and had made 200 ascents by 1835. In 1836, he set a major long distance record in the balloon "Royal Vauxhall", flying overnight from Vauxhall Gardens in London to Weilburg, Duchy of Nassau a distance of 480 miles : this record was not broken until 1907. By the time he retired in 1852, he had flown in a balloon more than 500 times
1788 Felice Romani an Italian poet and scholar of literature and mythology who wrote many librettos for the opera composers Donizetti and Bellini. Romani was considered the finest Italian librettist between Metastasio and Boito
1795 Gabriele Ferretti an Italian Catholic cardinal and Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
1797 Franz Schubert an Austrian composer.
1799 Rodolphe Töpffer a Swiss teacher, author, painter, cartoonist, and caricaturist. He is best known for his illustrated books, which can be seen as the earliest European comics
1804 József Bajza a Hungarian poet and critic.
1813 Agostino Depretis an Italian statesman. He was the Prime Minister of Italy from March 25, 1876 – March 24, 1878, December 19, 1878 – July 14, 1879, and May 29, 1881 – July 29, 1887
1815 Pedro Diez Canseco a Peruvian soldier and politician who became interim President of Peru on three occasions: 1863, 1865 and 1868. He was the brother of Francisco Diez Canseco, and a great-grandfather of Fernando Belaunde Terry
1819 Jean-Augustin Barral a French agronomist and balloonist.
1820 William B. Washburn an American politician from Massachusetts who served in the United States House of Representatives and as the 28th Governor of Massachusetts.
1824 Bernard Altum a German Catholic priest, zoologist, and forest scientist.
1825 Miska Magyarics Hungarian Slovene poet.
1830 James G. Blaine an American statesman and Republican politician who represented Maine in the United States House of Representatives from 1863 to 1876, serving as Speaker of the House from 1869 to 1875, and then in the United States Senate from 1876 to 1881. He twice served as United States Secretary of State and unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination for President in 1876 and 1880 before being nominated in 1884. In the general election, he was narrowly defeated by Democrat Grover Cleveland. Blaine was one of the late 19th century's leading Republicans and champion of the moderate reformist faction of the party known as the "Half-Breeds"
1835 Lunalilo monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi from January 8, 1873 until February 3, 1874. He was the most liberal king in Hawaiian history, but was the shortest-reigning monarch
1835 Gustave Rolin-Jaequemyns a Belgian attorney at law, diplomat and Minister of the Interior as a member of the Unitarian Liberal Party. Together with the Swiss jurist Gustave Moynier, he founded the Institut de Droit International and became its first Honorary President
1842 Marie-Charles David de Mayréna now southern Vietnam.
1848 Nathan Straus an American merchant and philanthropist who co-owned two of New York City's biggest department stores – R.H. Macy & Company and Abraham & Straus – before giving away most of his fortune to various projects in Ottoman Palestine
1850 Julius von Klever a russian landscape painter of Baltic German descent.
1852 Alexander Bethune the 12th Mayor of Vancouver, British Columbia, serving from 1907 to 1908. He had previously served seven years as alderman
1853 Costantino Barbella an Italian sculptor, known as il Michetti della scultura.
1854 David Emmanuel (mathematician) a Romanian Jewish mathematician and member of the Romanian Academy, considered to be the founder of the modern mathematics school in Romania.
1854 Stefan Stambolov a Bulgarian politician, who served as Prime Minister and regent. He is considered one of the most important and popular "Founders of Modern Bulgaria", and is sometimes referred to as "the Bulgarian Bismarck"
1854 Ludwig von Pastor a German historian and a diplomat for Austria. He became one of the most important Roman Catholic historians of his time and is most notable for his History of the Popes. He was raised to the nobility by the Emperor Franz Joseph I in 1908
1856 Hermann von François best known for his key role in several German victories on the Eastern Front in 1914.
1857 James Huneker an American art, book, music, and theater critic. A colorful individual and an ambitious writer, he was "an American with a great mission," in the words of his friend, the critic Benjamin de Casseres, and that mission was to educate Americans about the best cultural achievements, native and European, of his time
1857 George Jackson Churchward Chief Mechanical Engineer of the Great Western Railway in the United Kingdom from 1902 to 1922.