Died on January 4

581 Ferréol of Uzès bishop of Uzès and possibly bishop of Nîmes. His Feast Day is January 4
874 Hasan al-Askari the eleventh and the penultimate Imam of the Twelver Shia Muslims. His title al-Askari is derived from the Arabic word Asker for army. He was given this title because he lived in Samarra, a garrison town. He was 22, when his father was killed. The period of his Imāmate was six years and he died at the age of 28 and was buried in Samarra
1108 Gertrude of Poland the daughter of King Mieszko II of Poland and Queen Richeza of Lotharingia, and the great-granddaughter of German Emperor Otto II.
1207 Simon II Duke of Lorraine the Duke of Lorraine from 1176 to 1205. He was the son and successor of Matthias I and Judith, daughter of Frederick II, Duke of Swabia
1229 Abraham of Bulgaria a Christian convert from Islam later made a martyr and saint of the Russian Orthodox Church.
1248 Sancho II of Portugal King of Portugal from 1223 to 1247. He was succeeded by his brother, King Afonso III, in 1247
1256 Bernhard von Spanheim Duke of Carinthia for 54 years from 1202 until his death. He was a member of the noble House of Sponheim
1267 Beatrice of Savoy the daughter of Thomas I of Savoy and Margaret of Geneva. She was Countess consort of Provence by her marriage to Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence
1309 Angela of Foligno a Christian mystic who wrote extensively about her mystical revelations. She was a Franciscan tertiary and was known as "Mistress of Theologians"
1424 Muzio Sforza an Italian condottiero. Founder of the Sforza dynasty, he led a Bolognese-Florentine army at the Battle of Casalecchio
1428 Frederick I Elector of Saxony Margrave of Meissen and Elector of Saxony from 1381 until his death. He is not to be confused with his cousin Frederick IV, Landgrave of Thuringia, the son of Balthasar, Landgrave of Thuringia. Frederick the Warlike was never Landgrave of Thuringia
1546 Camillo Boccaccino an Italian painter of the Renaissance period, active mainly in Cremona and regions of Lombardy.
1564 Hosokawa Ujitsuna a Japanese military commander and Deputy Shogun of the Hosokawa clan in the end of the Muromachi period and Sengoku period of the 16th century. He was the foster son of Hosokawa Takakuni
1575 Sidonie of Saxony a princess of the House of Wettin and by marriage Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Princess of Calenberg-Göttingen.
1584 Tobias Stimmer a Swiss painter and illustrator. His most famous work is the paintings on the Strasbourg astronomical clock. He died in Strasbourg
1609 Giovanni Giacomo Gastoldi an Italian composer of the late Renaissance and early Baroque periods. He is known for his 1591 publication of balletti for five voices
1641 Francis Clifford 4th Earl of Cumberland a member of the Clifford family which held the seat of Skipton from 1310 to 1676.
1646 Gaspard III de Coligny a French Protestant general.
1684 Louis-Isaac Lemaistre de Sacy a theologian and French humanist. He is best known for his translation of the Bible the most widespread French Bible in the 18th century, also known as the Bible de Port-Royal
1697 Amalia Catharina a German poet and composer. She was born in Arolsen to Count Philipp Theodor von Waldeck and the Countess of Nassau. In 1664 she married Count Georg Ludwig von Erbach. She published a number of Pietist poems and songs in Hildburghausen in 1692. They were meant for private household devotion. There were 67 poems, some of which had simple melodies and a figured bass
1701 Ernst Rüdiger von Starhemberg military governor of Vienna from 1680, the city's defender during the Battle of Vienna in 1683, Imperial general during the Great Turkish War, and President of the Hofkriegsrat.
1707 Louis William Margrave of Baden-Baden the ruler of Baden in Germany and chief commander of the Imperial army. He was also known as Türkenlouis , for his many defeats of Turkish armies. At his death in 1707, his wife, Sibylle of Saxe-Lauenburg, acted as regent of Baden-Baden
1751 Robert Maynard a lieutenant and later captain in the Royal Navy. He served as first lieutenant of HMS Pearl, most famous for his part in the defeat of the infamous English pirate Blackbeard in battle. Robert Maynard was made a lieutenant on 14 January 1707. From 1709 he was third lieutenant on HMS Bedford. He became first lieutenant of HMS Pearl in 1716. He was promoted to commander in 1739, and to captain in 1740
1752 Gabriel Cramer a Swiss mathematician, born in Geneva. He was the son of physician Jean Cramer and Anne Mallet Cramer
1761 Stephen Hales an English clergyman who made major contributions to a range of scientific fields including botany, pneumatic chemistry and physiology. He invented several devices, including a ventilator, a pneumatic trough and a surgical forceps for the removal of bladder stones. He was also a philanthropist and wrote a popular tract on alcoholic intemperance
1782 Ange-Jacques Gabriel the most prominent French architect of his generation.
1786 Moses Mendelssohn indebted.
1787 Prince Joseph of Saxe-Hildburghausen an Austrian general and field marshal. He is best known for commanding the Franco-Austrian forces at the Battle of Rossbach
1791 Étienne Maurice Falconet counted among the first rank of French Rococo sculptors, whose patron was Mme de Pompadour.
1793 Bengt Lidner a Swedish poet, born in Gothenburg. His opera Medea was translated to English and played in England during his lifetime, but wasn't played in Sweden until 2004
1794 Nicolas Luckner a German in French service who rose to become a Marshal of France.
1798 Giuseppe Giordani an Italian composer, mainly of opera.
1800 Giovanni Battista Mancini an Italian soprano castrato, voice teacher, and author of books on singing.
1801 Duchess Louise Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Schwerin the maternal grandmother of Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
1804 Charlotte Lennox an English author and poet. She is most famous now as the author of The Female Quixote and for her association with Samuel Johnson, Joshua Reynolds, and Samuel Richardson, but she had a long career and wrote poetry, prose, and drama
1808 Prince Benedetto Duke of Chablais a prince of Savoy and Duke of Chablais. He was born in the reign of his father Charles Emmanuel III, King of Sardinia. He has no descendants but had a distinguished military career. He married his niece and was the owner of the Palazzo Chiablese in Turin
1821 Elizabeth Ann Seton the first native-born citizen of the United States to be canonized by the Roman Catholic Church. She established the first Catholic school in the nation, at Emmitsburg, Maryland, where she founded the first American congregation of religious sisters, the Sisters of Charity
1825 Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies the King of the Two Sicilies from 1816, after his restoration following victory in the Napoleonic Wars. Before that he had been, since 1759, Ferdinand IV of the Kingdom of Naples and Ferdinand III of the Kingdom of Sicily. He was deposed twice from the throne of Naples: once by the revolutionary Parthenopean Republic for six months in 1799 and again by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1805
1826 Nicolas Fuss a Swiss mathematician, living most of his life in Russia.
1843 Hippolyte Bouchard a French Argentine sailor, pirate and corsair who fought for Argentina, Chile, and Peru.
1843 Stevens T. Mason the territorial governor of the Michigan Territory, and later the first Governor of the state of Michigan. Mason guided the Michigan Territory into statehood. He was first appointed acting Territorial Secretary at the age of 19, then became acting Territorial Governor in 1834 at the age of 22. He was elected governor of the state of Michigan at age 23 as a member of the Democratic Party in 1835, and served until 1840. Mason is the youngest state governor in American history
1845 Louis-Léopold Boilly a French painter and draftsman. A gifted creator of popular portrait paintings, he also produced a vast number of genre paintings vividly documenting French middle-class social life. His life and work spanned the eras of monarchical France, the French Revolution, the Napoleonic Empire, the Bourbon Restoration and the July Monarchy
1849 Franz Xaver Gabelsberger a German inventor of a shorthand writing system, named Gabelsberger shorthand after him.
1856 David d'Angers a French sculptor and medallist. He adopted the name David d'Angers, following his entry into the studio of the painter Jacques-Louis David in 1809 as a way of both expressing his patrimony and distinguishing himself from the master painter
1862 John Hemphill (senator) Chief Justice of the Texas Supreme Court, and a United States Senator.
1863 Roger Hanson a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. The commander of the famed "Orphan Brigade," he was mortally wounded at the Battle of Murfreesboro. He was nicknamed "Old Flintlock."
1874 Thomas Gregson the second Premier of Tasmania, serving from 26 February 1857 until 25 April 1857.
1875 Thomas Stephens (historian) a Welsh apothecary, historian and critic. He was born at Pont Nedd Fechan, Glamorganshire, the son of a shoemaker. His works include The Literature of the Kymry , The History of Trial by Jury in Wales, and an essay in which he demolished the claim of the Welsh under Madoc to the discovery of America. He also wrote on the life and works of the bard Aneurin, and produced an English translation of Y Gododdin. The critical methods that he adopted in his works often made him unpopular with the less discriminating enthusiasts for the glory of Wales, but he earned the respect of serious scholars
1877 Cornelius Vanderbilt an American business magnate and philanthropist who built his wealth in railroads and shipping. He was also the patriarch of the Vanderbilt family and one of the richest Americans in history. He provided the initial gift to found Vanderbilt University, which is named in his honor
1878 Thomas Vernon Wollaston a prominent English entomologist and malacologist, becoming especially known for his studies of Coleoptera inhabiting several North Atlantic archipelagoes. He was well-placed socially. His religious beliefs effectively prevented him from supporting Charles Darwin's theories after 1859, but Darwin remained a close friend. Wollaston supported the theory that continental lands had once extended outward farther to encompass some of the island groups he studied