Born on January 5

1209 Richard 1st Earl of Cornwall Count of Poitou , 1st Earl of Cornwall and German King. He was one of the wealthiest men in Europe and joined the Barons' Crusade, where he achieved success as a negotiator for the release of prisoners and assisted with the building of the citadel in Ascalon
1425 Henry IV of Castile the last of the weak late medieval kings of Castile. During Henry's reign the nobles increased in power and the nation became less centralised
1548 Francisco Suárez a Spanish Jesuit priest, philosopher and theologian, one of the leading figures of the School of Salamanca movement, and generally regarded among the greatest scholastics after Thomas Aquinas. His work is considered a turning point in the history of second scholasticism, marking the transition from its Renaissance to its Baroque phases. According to Christopher Shields and Daniel Schwartz, "figures as distinct from one another in place, time, and philosophical orientation as Leibniz, Grotius, Pufendorf, Schopenhauer, and Heidegger, all found reason to cite him as a source of inspiration and influence."
1587 Xu Xiake a Chinese travel writer and geographer of the Ming Dynasty , known best for his famous geographical treatise, and noted for his bravery and humility. He traveled throughout China for more than 30 years, documenting his travels extensively. The records of his travels were compiled posthumously in The Travel Diaries Xu Xiake, and his work translated by Ding Wenjiang. Xu's writing falls under the old Chinese literary category of 'travel record literature' , which used narrative and prose styles of writing to portray one's travel experiences
1592 Shah Jahan the fifth Mughal Emperor of India. He is also known as Shah Jahan He ruled from 1628 until 1658
1611 Tsarevich Ivan Dmitriyevich the only son of False Dmitry II of Russia and his wife Marina Mniszech, daughter of Polish Voivode Jerzy Mniszech and his wife Jadwiga Tarło. He was a claimant to the throne of the Tsardom of Russia until his death at the age of not quite four, in December 1614. He was killed right after his step-father, Ivan Zarutsky
1614 Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria an Austrian military commander, Governor of the Spanish Netherlands from 1647 to 1656, and a patron of the arts.
1616 Simeon Bekbulatovich a Muslim-born Khan of the Khanate of Qasim. After the period of the Oprichnina , Ivan the Terrible named Simeon Grand Prince of All Rus'. He participated in the Livonian war as a commander of the main regiment of the Muscovite army. Subsequently, he was named Grand Prince of Tver' and Torzhok. He went blind in 1595 and was allegedly tonsured as a Christian monk under the monastic name Stefan in 1606
1620 Miklós Zrínyi a Croatian and Hungarian military leader, statesman and poet. He was a member of the House of Zrinski , a Croatian-Hungarian noble family. He is the author of the first epic poem in Hungarian literature
1640 Paolo Lorenzani an Italian composer of the Baroque Era. While living in France, he helped promote appreciation for the Italian style of music
1679 Pietro Filippo Scarlatti an Italian composer, organist and choirmaster.
1703 James Hamilton 5th Duke of Hamilton a Scottish peer, the son of the 4th Duke of Hamilton.
1714 Mamia III Gurieli Prince of Guria from 1689 to 1714 and King of Imereti in 1701–02, 1711 and 1713.
1717 William Barrington 2nd Viscount Barrington a British politician best known for his two periods as Secretary at War during Britain's involvement in the Seven Years War and American War of Independence.
1723 Nicole-Reine Lepaute a French astronomer and mathematician. She predicted the return of Halley's Comet, calculated the timing of a solar eclipse and constructed a group of catalogs for the stars. She was a member of the Scientific Academy of Béziers
1726 Josef Starzer an Austrian composer and violinist of the pre-classical period.
1735 Claude Martin an officer in the French, and later the British, army in India. He rose to the position of Major General in the British East India Company's Bengal Army. Martin was born in Lyon, France, into a humble background, and was a self-made man who has left a substantial lasting legacy in the form of his writings, buildings and the educational institutions he founded posthumously. There are seven schools named after him, two in Lucknow, two in Calcutta and three in Lyon. The small village of Martin Purwa in India was also named after him
1743 Charles Henry of Nassau-Siegen a French-German adventurer and sailer, who became Admiral of the Russian Imperial Navy.
1744 Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos a Spanish neoclassical statesman, author, philosopher and a major figure of the Age of Enlightenment in Spain.
1759 Jacques Cathelineau a French Vendéan insurrection leader during the French Revolution. His grandson, Henri de Cathelineau, was an officer in the 1870 Franco-Prussian War
1762 Constanze Mozart the wife of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
1766 Victor Lahorie a French general who served during the First Empire.
1767 Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson a French painter and pupil of Jacques-Louis David, who was part of the beginning of the Romantic movement by adding elements of eroticism through his paintings. Girodet is remembered for his precise and clear style and for his paintings of members of the Napoleonic family
1767 Jean-Baptiste Say a French economist and businessman. He had classically liberal views and argued in favor of competition, free trade, and lifting restraints on business. He is best known due to Say's Law, which is named after him and at times credited to him, but while he discussed and popularized it, he did not originate it
1772 Balthasar von Campenhausen a Russian statesman who held the ranks of Privy Councilor and Chamberlain.
1774 George Chinnery an English painter who spent most of his life in Asia, especially India and southern China.
1778 Charles-Guillaume Étienne a French dramatist and miscellaneous writer.
1779 Zebulon Pike named. As a United States Army captain in 1806–1807, he led the Pike Expedition, sent out by President Thomas Jefferson, to explore and document the southern portion of the Louisiana territory and to find the headwaters of the Red River, during which he recorded the discovery of what later was called Pikes Peak. The Pike expedition coincided with other Jefferson expeditions including the Lewis and Clark Expedition and the Thomas Freeman and Peter Custis expedition. The Pike Expedition traveled through present-day Colorado after his party confused their location. This led to capture by Spanish, who sent Pike and his men to Chihuahua, present-day Mexico and questioned by the governor. They were released later in 1807 at the border of Louisiana
1779 Stephen Decatur a United States naval officer and Commodore notable for his many naval victories in the early 19th century.
1780 Camille Alphonse Trézel a French général de division, Minister for War and peer of France during the July Monarchy. He was Assistant Chief of the General Staff on the Morea expedition, and served in the 1830s in the French conquest of Algeria, where he suffered a disastrous defeat at the Battle of Macta
1782 Robert Morrison (missionary) an Anglo -Scottish evangelist and the first Christian Protestant missionary in China.
1786 Thomas Nuttall an English botanist and zoologist who lived and worked in America from 1808 until 1841.
1790 Melchor Múzquiz a Mexican soldier and politician. From August to December 1832 he was president of Mexico
1793 Harvey Putnam an American lawyer and politician. He was a Whig member of the U.S. House of Representatives, and served in the New York Senate
1797 Eduard Vogel von Falckenstein a Prussian General der Infanterie.
1808 Anton Füster an Austrian Roman Catholic priest, theologian, pedagogue, radical political activist and author of Slovene origin. He was one of the leaders of the Viennese March Revolution of 1848
1808 Mohammad Shah Qajar king of Persia from the Qajar dynasty.
1811 Cyrus Hamlin an American Congregational missionary and educator, the father of D. Hamlin
1814 Melchor Ocampo a Mexican lawyer, scientist, and liberal politician.
1816 Daniel Wilson (academic) a Scottish-born Canadian archaeologist, ethnologist and author.
1818 Ferdinand von Roemer Carl Ferdinand von Roemer , German geologist, had originally been educated for the legal profession at Göttingen, but became interested in geology, and abandoning law in 1840, studied science at the University of Berlin, where he graduated Ph.D. in 1842.
1822 Joseph B. Kershaw a lawyer, judge, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War.
1822 Kurd von Schlözer an imperial German historian, diplomat and German Ambassador to the United States from 1871 to 1882.
1823 José María Iglesias a Mexican lawyer, professor, journalist and politician. From 31 October 1876 to 23 January 1877 he claimed the interim presidency of Mexico. However he was never undisputed president
1826 Alfred Vulpian a French physician and neurologist. He was the co-discoverer of Vulpian-Bernhardt spinal muscular atrophy and the Vulpian-Heidenhain-Sherrington phenomenon
1828 Stjepan Jovanović a military commander of the Austrian Empire from Croatia.
1833 Pavel Zelenoy a Russian admiral, governor of Taganrog and Odessa.
1833 Sophus Bugge a noted Norwegian philologist and linguist. His scholarly work was directed to the study of runic inscriptions and Norse philology. Bugge is best known for his theories and his work on the runic alphabet and the Poetic Edda and Prose Edda
1834 William John Wills a British surveyor who also trained for a while as a surgeon. He achieved fame as the second-in-command of the ill-fated Burke and Wills expedition, which was the first expedition to cross Australia from south to north, finding a route across the continent from the settled areas of Victoria to the Gulf of Carpentaria
1838 Camille Jordan a French mathematician, known both for his foundational work in group theory and for his influential Cours d'analyse. He was born in Lyon and educated at the École polytechnique. He was an engineer by profession; later in life he taught at the École polytechnique and the Collège de France, where he had a reputation for eccentric choices of notation