Died on January 5

842 Al-Mu'tasim the eighth Abbasid caliph, ruling from 833 to his death in 842. A son of Harun al-Rashid, he succeeded his half-brother al-Ma'mun, under whom he had served as a military commander and governor. His reign was marked by the introduction of the Turkish slave-soldiers and the establishment for them of a new capital at Samarra. This was a watershed in the Caliphate's history, as the Turks would soon come to dominate the Abbasid government, eclipsing the Arab and Iranian elites that had played a major role in the early period of the Abbasid state. Domestically, al-Mu'tasim continued al-Ma'mun's support of Mu'tazilism and its inquisition , and centralised administration, reducing the power of provincial governors in favour of a small group of senior civil and military officials in Samarra. Al-Mu'tasim's reign was also marked by continuous warfare, both against internal rebellions like the Khurramite revolt of Babak Khorramdin or the uprising of Mazyar of Tabaristan, but also against the Byzantine Empire, where the Caliph personally led the celebrated Sack of Amorium, which secured his reputation as a warrior-caliph
1066 Edward the Confessor usually regarded as the last king of the House of Wessex, ruling from 1042 to 1066.
1113 Ulrich I Duke of Brno the Duke of Moravia for twenty one years - between 1092 and 1113. He was the first son and successor of Conrad I, of Brno and Wirpirk of Tengling. He did not succeed as half ruler of Moravia , for all half of Moravia as his father Conrad I, but Brno was divided into two parts: Brno and Znojmo and Ulrich was co-ruler in this part with his brother Luitpold of Znojmo. Both brothers together established a benedictine cloister and its Procopius Basilica in Třebíč and prepared as mausoleum for Brno-Znojmo branche House of Přemyslid
1173 Bolesław IV the Curly counted, of the Piast dynasty was Duke of Masovia from 1138 and High Duke of Poland from 1146 until his death.
1382 Philippa 5th Countess of Ulster the suo jure Countess of Ulster.
1400 John Montacute 3rd Earl of Salisbury an English nobleman, one of the few who remained loyal to Richard II after Henry IV became king.
1430 Philippa of England the Queen of Denmark, Sweden and Norway from 1406 to 1430. She was the consort to Eric of Pomerania, who ruled the three kingdoms. Queen Philippa served as the de facto regent of Sweden in 1420 and the regent of Denmark and Norway from 1423 to 1425
1441 John II of Luxembourg Count of Ligny a French nobleman and soldier, a younger son of John of Luxembourg, Lord of Beauvoir and Marguerite of Enghien.
1465 Charles Duke of Orléans Duke of Orléans from 1407, following the murder of his father, Louis I, Duke of Orléans, on the orders of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy. He was also Duke of Valois, Count of Beaumont-sur-Oise and of Blois, Lord of Coucy, and the inheritor of Asti in Italy via his mother Valentina Visconti, daughter of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan. He is now remembered as an accomplished medieval poet owing to the more than five hundred extant poems he produced, written in both French and English, during his 25 years spent as a prisoner of war
1477 Charles the Bold Duke of Burgundy from 1467 to 1477. He was the last Valois Duke of Burgundy
1517 Francesco Raibolini an Italian painter, goldsmith, and medallist from Bologna, who was also director of the city mint.
1524 Marko Marulić a Croatian national poet and Christian humanist, known as the Crown of the Croatian Medieval Age and the father of the Croatian Renaissance. He signed his works as Marko Marulić Splićanin , Marko Pečenić, Marcus Marulus Spalatensis, or Dalmata. He was also the first who defined and used the notion of psychology, which is today in current use
1527 Felix Manz a co-founder of the original Swiss Brethren Anabaptist congregation in Zürich, Switzerland, and the first martyr of the Radical Reformation.
1547 Albrecht VII Duke of Mecklenburg a minor ruler in North Germany of the 16th century. He also asserted claims to Scandinavian thrones based on the royal lineage of the House of Mecklenburg
1578 Giulio Clovio an illuminator, miniaturist, and painter born in the Kingdom of Croatia, who was mostly active in Renaissance Italy. He is considered the greatest illuminator of the Italian High Renaissance, and arguably the last very notable artist in the long tradition of the illuminated manuscript, before some modern revivals
1589 Catherine de' Medici an Italian noblewoman who was Queen of France from 1547 until 1559, as the wife of King Henry As the mother of three sons who became kings of France during her lifetime she had extensive, if at times varying, influence in the political life of France. For a time she ruled France as its regent
1592 William Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg a Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg. William was born in and died in Düsseldorf. He was the only son of John III, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, and Maria, Duchess of Jülich-Berg. William took over rule of his father's estates upon his death in 1539. Despite his mother having lived until 1543, William also became the Duke of Berg and Jülich and the Count of Ravenstein
1625 Simon Marius a German astronomer. He was born in Gunzenhausen, near Nuremberg, but he spent most of his life in the city of Ansbach
1674 Ebba Brahe a Swedish countess, landowner and courtier. She is foremost known for being the love object of king Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, and because he wished to marry her prior to his marriage, plans which were however never realized. Their love affair has been famous in the Swedish romantic history and the subject of fiction, and are documented in their preserved correspondence
1690 Marcjan Aleksander Ogiński a nobleman, a military commander and a statesman of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. He advanced to colonel in 1657, served as Voivod of Trakai and Grand Chancellor of Lithuania. He was the signatory of the Eternal Peace Treaty of 1686 with the Tsardom of Russia, on the side of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
1711 Mary Rowlandson a colonial American woman who was captured by Native Americans during King Philip's War and held for 11 weeks before being ransomed. In 1682, six years after her ordeal, The Sovereignty and Goodness of God: Being a Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson was published. This text is considered a seminal American work in the literary genre of captivity narratives. It went through four printings in 1682 and garnered readership both in the New England colonies and in England, leading it to be considered by some the first American "bestseller."
1713 Jean Chardin regarded as one of the finest works of early Western scholarship on Persia and the Near East.
1716 Mihai Racoviță a Prince of Moldavia on three separate occasions and Prince of Wallachia on two occasions. His rules overlapped with the accession of Phanariotes in the Danubian Principalities – he is considered himself a Phanariote for the duration of his last rule in Moldavia and his rules over Wallachia
1735 Carlo Ruzzini a Venetian diplomat, statesman and Doge.
1740 Antonio Lotti an Italian Baroque composer.
1762 Elizabeth of Russia the Empress of Russia from 1741 until her death. She led the country into the two major European conflicts of her time: the War of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War. On the eve of her death, Russia spanned almost 6,250,000 square miles
1771 John Russell 4th Duke of Bedford an 18th-century British statesman. He was the fourth son of Wriothesley Russell, 2nd Duke of Bedford, by his wife, Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of John Howland of Streatham, Surrey. Known as Lord John Russell, he married in October 1731 Diana Spencer, daughter of Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland; became Duke of Bedford on his brother’s death a year later; and having lost his first wife in 1735, married in April 1737 Lady Gertrude Leveson-Gower , daughter of John Leveson-Gower, 1st Earl Gower
1776 Philipp Ludwig Statius Müller a German zoologist.
1790 Jacob Christian Schäffer a German dean, professor, botanist, mycologist, entomologist, ornithologist and inventor.
1796 Samuel Huntington (statesman) a jurist, statesman, and Patriot in the American Revolution from Connecticut. As a delegate to the Continental Congress, he signed the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation. He also served as President of the Continental Congress from 1779 to 1781, chief justice of the Connecticut Supreme Court from 1784 to 1785, and the 18th Governor of Connecticut from 1786 until his death
1798 William Flackton an 18th-century bookseller, publisher, amateur organist, viola player and composer. He is perhaps best known today for his compositions for the viola
1808 Alexei Grigoryevich Orlov a Russian soldier and statesman, who rose to prominence during the reign of Catherine the Great.
1812 Sir Richard Hughes 2nd Baronet a British naval commander.
1815 Anton Wilhelm von L'Estocq a Prussian cavalry general best known for his command of the Prussian troops at the Battle of Eylau.
1818 Marcello Bacciarelli a Polish-Italian painter of the late-baroque and Neoclassic periods.
1827 Prince Frederick Duke of York and Albany the second eldest child and second son of King George III of the United Kingdom and a member of the House of Hanover. From the death of his father in 1820 until his own death in 1827, he was the heir presumptive to his elder brother, King George IV, both to the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Hanover
1828 Kobayashi Issa a Japanese poet and lay Buddhist priest of the Jōdo Shinshū sect known for his haiku poems and journals. He is better known as simply Issa , a pen name meaning Cup-of-tea. He is regarded as one of the four haiku masters in Japan, along with Bashō, Buson and Shiki - "the Great Four, Basho, Buson, Issa, Shiki"
1834 Claude Carra Saint-Cyr For the French milliner, see Claude Saint-Cyr.
1846 Alfred Thomas Agate a noted American artist, painter and miniaturist.
1848 Ferdinando Orlandi an Italian composer best known for his operas. Born in Parma, he was a pupil of organist Gaspare Rugarli and composer Ferdinando Paer. He also studied at the Conservatorio della Pietà dei Turchini in Naples with Nicola Sala and Giacomo Tritto. In 1800, he took a position at the ducal court in Parma. He worked as a singing teacher in Milan , Monaco , and Stuttgart. In 1834 he was appointed maestro di cappella of the Parma Cathedral. He composed at least 25 operas between 1800 and 1820
1855 Mihály Pollack a Hungarian architect, key figure of neoclassical architecture. His main work is the Hungarian National Museum
1858 Joseph Radetzky von Radetz a Czech nobleman and Austrian general, immortalised by Johann Strauss I's Radetzky March. General Radetzky was in the military for over 70 years to the age of 90, almost up to his death at age 91, and is known for the victories at the Battles of Custoza and Novara during the First Italian War of Independence
1860 John Neumann Nepomucene Neumann, C.Ss.R. was a native of Bohemia who emigrated to the United States, where he became a Catholic priest, Redemptorist and the fourth Bishop of Philadelphia. He is the first American bishop to be canonized. While Bishop of Philadelphia, Neumann founded the first Catholic diocesan school system in the United States
1861 Heinrich Alexander von Arnim a Prussian statesman.
1867 Alexander Smith (poet) a Scottish poet, labelled as one of the Spasmodic School, and essayist.
1870 Friedrich Calker educated in Jena. For a short time, he was a lecturer in Berlin. In 1818, he was called to an extraordinary professorship in the newly founded University of Bonn, becoming an ordinary professor in 1826. He substantially echoed the ideas of his teacher Jakob Fries. His two major works are Urgesetzlehre des Wahren, Guten und Schönen und Denklehre
1877 Carl Timoleon von Neff an artist of Baltic German descent, from present-day Estonia.
1877 Richard Cobbold a British writer.
1877 Hermann Brockhaus a German Orientalist born in Amsterdam. He was a leading authority on Sanskrit and Persian languages. He was the son of publisher Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus and brother-in-law to composer Richard Wagner
1878 Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora an Italian general and statesman. His brother Alessandro La Marmora founded the branch of the Italian army now called the Bersaglieri