January 5 events in history

1066 Edward the Confessor dies childless, sparking a succession crisis that will eventually lead to the Norman conquest of England
1477 Battle of Nancy: Charles the Bold is killed and Burgundy becomes part of France
1500 Duke Ludovico Sforza conquers Milan
1527 Felix Manz, a leader of the Anabaptist congregation in Zurich, Switzerland, is executed by drowning
1554 A great fire occurs in Eindhoven, Netherlands
1675 Battle of Colmar: the French army beats Brandenburg
1757 Louis XV of France survives an assassination attempt by Robert-François Damiens, the last person to be executed in France by drawing and quartering, the traditional and gruesome form of capital punishment used for regicides
1781 American Revolutionary War: Richmond, Virginia, is burned by British naval forces led by Benedict Arnold
1846 The United States House of Representatives votes to stop sharing the Oregon Territory with the United Kingdom
1895 Dreyfus affair: French army officer Alfred Dreyfus is stripped of his rank and sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil's Island
1896 An Austrian newspaper reports that Wilhelm Röntgen has discovered a type of radiation later known as X-rays
1900 Irish leader John Redmond calls for a revolt against British rule
1909 Colombia recognizes the independence of Panama
1911 Kappa Alpha Psi, the world's second oldest and largest black fraternity, is founded at Indiana University
1912 The Prague Party Conference takes place
1913 First Balkan War: During the Battle of Lemnos, Greek admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis forces the Turkish fleet to retreat to its base within the Dardanelles, from which it did not venture for the rest of the war
1914 The Ford Motor Company announces an eight-hour workday and that it would pay a "living wage" of at least $5 for a day's labor
1919 The German Workers' Party, which would become the Nazi Party, is founded
1925 Nellie Tayloe Ross of Wyoming becomes the first female governor in the United States
1933 Construction of the Golden Gate Bridge begins in San Francisco Bay
1940 FM radio is demonstrated to the Federal Communications Commission for the first time
1944 The Daily Mail becomes the first transoceanic newspaper
1945 The Soviet Union recognizes the new pro-Soviet government of Poland
1949 United States President Harry S. Truman unveils his Fair Deal program
1957 In a speech given to the United States Congress, United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower announces the establishment of what will later be called the Eisenhower Doctrine
1968 Alexander Dubček comes to power: "Prague Spring" begins in Czechoslovakia
1969 The Troubles: The Royal Ulster Constabulary raid the Bogside area of Derry, damaging property and beating residents. In response, residents erect barricades and establish Free Derry
1972 United States President Richard Nixon orders the development of a Space Shuttle program
1974 An earthquake in Lima, Peru, kills six people, and damages hundreds of houses
1974 Warmest reliably measured temperature in Antarctica of +59 °F (+15 °C) recorded at Vanda Station
1975 The Tasman Bridge in Tasmania, Australia, is struck by the bulk ore carrier Lake Illawarra, killing twelve people
1976 The Khmer Rouge proclaim the Constitution of Democratic Kampuchea
1976 The Troubles: In response to the killing of six Catholics the night before, gunmen shoot dead ten Protestant civilians after stopping their minibus at Kingsmill in County Armagh, Northern Ireland, UK
1991 Georgian forces enter Tskhinvali, the capital of South Ossetia, Georgia, opening the 1991–1992 South Ossetia War
1993 The oil tanker MV Braer runs aground on the coast of the Shetland Islands, spilling 84,700 tons of crude oil
2005 Eris, the largest known dwarf planet in the Solar System, is discovered by the team of Michael E. Brown, Chad Trujillo, and David L. Rabinowitz using images originally taken on October 21, 2003, at the Palomar Observatory