Born on January 6

437 Rufius Antonius Agrypnius Volusianus a fifth-century Roman aristocrat who held at least two important posts during the reign of the emperor Honorius. He is best known for his exchange of letters with Augustine
1256 Gertrude the Great a German Cistercian, mystic, and theologian. She is recognized as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church, and is inscribed in the General Roman Calendar, for celebration throughout the Latin Rite on November 16
1367 Richard II of England King of England from 1377 until he was deposed on 30 September 1399.
1384 Edmund Holland 4th Earl of Kent the Earl of Kent in 1400 – 1407. He was the 106th Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1403
1486 Martin Agricola a German composer of Renaissance music and a music theorist.
1488 Helius Eobanus Hessus a German Latin poet born at Halgehausen in Hesse-Kassel.
1499 John of Ávila a Spanish priest, preacher, scholastic author, and religious mystic, who has been declared a saint and Doctor of the Church by the Catholic Church. He is called the "Apostle of Andalusia", for his extensive ministry in that region
1525 Caspar Peucer a German reformer, physician, and scholar of Sorbian origin.
1561 Thomas Fincke a Danish mathematician and physicist, and a professor at the University of Copenhagen for more than 60 years.
1567 Richard Burbage an English stage actor and theatre owner. He was the younger brother of Cuthbert Burbage. They were both actors in drama
1585 Claude Favre de Vaugelas a Savoyard grammarian and man of letters. Although a lifelong courtier, Claude Favre was widely known by the name of one of the landed estates he owned as seigneur of Vaugelas and baron of Peroges
1587 Gaspar de Guzmán Count-Duke of Olivares a Spanish royal favourite of Philip IV and minister. As prime minister from 1621 to 1643, he over-exerted Spain in foreign affairs and unsuccessfully attempted domestic reform. His policies of committing Spain to recapture Holland led to his major involvement in the Thirty Years' War and his attempts to centralise power and increase wartime taxation led to revolts in Catalonia and in Portugal, which brought about his downfall
1617 Christoffer Gabel a Danish statesman.
1621 Patriarch Joachim of Moscow the eleventh Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, an opponent of the Raskol , and a founder of the Slavic Greek Latin Academy.
1631 Anne Hamilton 3rd Duchess of Hamilton a Scottish peeress.
1653 Christian Duke of Saxe-Eisenberg a duke of Saxe-Eisenberg.
1655 Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg Holy Roman Empress as the spouse of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. Through her marriage, she was also Queen of Bohemia and Hungary, German Queen, and Archduchess of Austria. She served as Interim Regent in 1711. She was the paternal grandmother of Empress Maria Theresa
1655 Jacob Bernoulli one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family. He was an early proponent of Leibnizian calculus and had sided with Leibniz during the Leibniz–Newton calculus controversy. He is known for his numerous contributions to calculus, and along with his brother Johann, was one of the founders of the calculus of variations. However, his most important contribution was in the field of probability, where he derived the first version of the law of large numbers in his work Ars Conjectandi
1669 Isabel Luísa Princess of Beira a Portuguese infanta and the sole daughter of King Peter II of Portugal and his first wife and former sister-in-law Maria Francisca of Savoy. As such she was styled Princess of Beira. She was the presumptive heir to the throne of Portugal between 1668 and 1689, the year her half-brother John was born
1670 Alexander Gordon (general) a Scottish general who fought for the Russian army under Peter the Great, and for the Jacobites in the Jacobite rising of 1715.
1673 James Brydges 1st Duke of Chandos the first of fourteen children of Sir James Brydges, 3rd Baronet of Wilton Castle, Sheriff of Herefordshire, 8th Baron Chandos; and Elizabeth Barnard. Three days after his father's death on 16 October 1714, when he became 9th Baron Chandos, he was created 1st Viscount Wilton and 1st Earl of Carnarvon; he became 1st Duke of Chandos and 1st Marquess of Carnarvon in 1719. He was a member of parliament for Hereford from 1698 to 1714
1680 Matija Zmajević admiral of the Baltic Fleet and the shipbuilder of the famous Russian Tsar Peter I the Great, and for whom he built a fleet in Voronezh.
1695 Giuseppe Sammartini an Italian composer and oboist during the late Baroque and early Classical era. Although he was from Milan, most of his professional life was spent in London and with Frederick, the Prince of Wales
1702 José de Nebra a Spanish composer.
1714 Percivall Pott an English surgeon, one of the founders of orthopedy, and the first scientist to demonstrate that a cancer may be caused by an environmental carcinogen.
1719 Ivan Ivanovich Belsky a Russian painter. He was part of the "Belsky Dynasty" of painters of the Eighteenth Century and one of the first teachers at the Imperial Academy of Arts, where he taught history painting
1730 Thomas Chittenden an important figure in the founding of Vermont, as the President of the Vermont Republic and the first Governor of the state of Vermont.
1732 Matija Antun Relković a Croatian writer. Born in the village of Davor in Slavonia as a son of a Military Frontier officer, Relković too enlisted in the Austrian army at the age of 16. He fought in the Seven Years' War until he was captured by Prussians in Wrocław , and spent a few years of rather "relaxed" imprisonment at Frankfurt. Relković's prison years became his Lehrjahre, his educational period: a voracious but unsystematic reader, he studied many works by leading Enlightenment writers , as well as Polish poet Jan Kochanowski's didactic epic Satir- which became the model for his most famous work. After the release, Relković spent a few more years on war campaigns , but eventually sated and bored with military life, he asked and got pension from Austrian emperor Joseph II in the rank of captain, as well as the title of hereditary noble. Having spent the rest of his life as a writer and social reformer, Relković died in Vinkovci, Croatia
1741 Sarah Trimmer a writer and critic of 18th-century British children's literature, as well as an educational reformer. Her periodical, The Guardian of Education, helped to define the emerging genre by seriously reviewing children's literature for the first time; it also provided the first history of children's literature, establishing a canon of the early landmarks of the genre that scholars still use today. Trimmer's most popular children's book, Fabulous Histories, inspired numerous children's animal stories and remained in print for over a century
1756 Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros a Spanish naval officer born in Cartagena. He took part in the Battle of Cape St Vincent and the Battle of Trafalgar, and in the Spanish resistance against Napoleon's invasion in 1808. He was later appointed Viceroy of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, replacing Santiago de Liniers. He disestablished the government Junta of Javier de Elío and quelled the Chuquisaca Revolution and the La Paz revolution. An open cabildo deposed him as viceroy during the May Revolution, but he attempted to be the president of the new government junta, thus retaining power. The popular unrest in Buenos Aires did not allow that, so he resigned. He was banished back to Spain shortly after that, and died in 1829
1757 Albrecht Wilhelm Roth a physician and botanist born in Dötlingen, Germany.
1766 José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia a Paraguayan lawyer and politician, and one of the first leaders of Paraguay following its independence from Spain.
1776 Ferdinand von Schill a Prussian officer who revolted unsuccessfully against French domination in May 1809.
1785 Carl Friedrich von Rumohr a German art historian, writer, draughtsman and painter, agricultural historian, connoisseur of and writer about the culinary arts, art collector and patron of artists.
1786 Gaspar del Bufalo a Roman Catholic priest and the founder of the Missionaries of the Precious Blood.
1793 James Madison Porter the 18th United States Secretary of War and a founder of Lafayette College.
1795 Anselme Payen a French chemist known for discovering the enzyme diastase, and the carbohydrate cellulose.
1797 Edward Turner Bennett an English zoologist and writer. He was the elder brother of the botanist John Joseph Bennett
1798 Marie Dorval a French actress.
1799 Nicolas Eugène Géruzez a French critic.
1799 Jedediah Smith a hunter, trapper, fur trader, trailblazer, author, cartographer and explorer of the Rocky Mountains, the American West Coast and the Southwest during the 19th century. Nearly forgotten by historians almost a century after his death, Smith has been rediscovered as an American hero who was the first white man to travel overland from the Salt Lake frontier, the Colorado River, the Mojave Desert, and finally into California. Smith was the first United States citizen to explore and eastwardly cross the Sierra Nevada and the treacherous Great Basin. Smith also was the first American to travel up the California coast to reach the Oregon Country. Not only was he the first to do this, but he and Robert Stuart discovered the South Pass. This path became the main route used by pioneers to travel to the Oregon Country. Surviving three massacres and one bear mauling, Jedediah Smith's explorations and documented discoveries were highly significant in opening the American West to expansion by white settlers and cattlemen. In 1831, while searching for water off the Santa Fe Trail, Smith was mortally wounded by Commanche warriors
1802 John Gabriel Perboyre C.M. was a French priest, who served as a missionary in China, where he became a martyr. He was canonized in 1996 by Pope John Paul II
1802 Ion Heliade Rădulescu a Wallachian-born Romanian academic, Romantic and Classicist poet, essayist, memoirist, short story writer, newspaper editor and politician. A prolific translator of foreign literature into Romanian, he was also the author of books on linguistics and history. For much of his life, Heliade Rădulescu was a teacher at Saint Sava College in Bucharest, which he helped reopen. He was a founding member and first president of the Romanian Academy
1806 Christian Eduard Langethal a German botanist and agronomist. He is known for his writings involving agricultural botany and agricultural history
1807 Joseph Petzval a mathematician, inventor, and physicist best known for his work in optics. He was born in the town of Zipser Bela in the Kingdom of Hungary
1808 Joseph Pitty Couthouy an American naval officer, conchologist, and invertebrate palaeontologist. Born in Boston, Massachusetts, he entered the Boston Latin School in 1820. He married Mary Greenwood Wild on 9 March 1832
1811 Charles Sumner an American politician and senator from Massachusetts. An academic lawyer and a powerful orator, Sumner was the leader of the antislavery forces in Massachusetts and a leader of the Radical Republicans in the United States Senate during the American Civil War working to destroy the Confederacy, free all the slaves and keep on good terms with Europe. During Reconstruction, he fought to minimize the power of the ex-Confederates and guarantee equal rights to the Freedmen
1812 Melchora Aquino a Filipina revolutionary who became known as "Tandang Gillian" in the history of the Philippines because of her age when the Philippine Revolution broke out in 1896. She is also known as the "Grand Woman of the Revolution" and the "Mother of Mother of Laurel" for her contributions to Philippine history
1813 Hipolit Cegielski a Polish businessman and social and cultural activist. He founded Cegielski - Poznań S.A. in 1846
1814 Auguste Chapdelaine a French Christian missionary of the Paris Foreign Missions Society.