Born on January 7

891 Abd-ar-Rahman III the Emir and Caliph of Córdoba of the Ummayad dynasty in al-Andalus. Called al-Nasir li-Din Allah , he ascended the throne in his early 20s, and reigned for half a century as the most powerful prince of Iberia. Although people of all creeds enjoyed tolerance and freedom of religion under his rule, he repelled the Fatimids, partly by supporting their Maghrawa enemies in North Africa, and partly by claiming the title Caliph for himself
1355 Thomas of Woodstock 1st Duke of Gloucester the fourteenth and youngest child of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was the fifth of the five sons of Edward III who survived to adulthood
1434 Adolf Duke of Bavaria a German nobleman. He was a Duke of Bavaria-Munich in the House of Wittelsbach
1502 Pope Gregory XIII Pope of the Catholic Church from 13 May 1572 to his death in 1585. He is best known for commissioning and being the namesake for the Gregorian calendar, which remains the internationally accepted civil calendar to this day
1582 Magdalene of Brandenburg the daughter of John George, Elector of Brandenburg and his third wife Elisabeth of Anhalt-Zerbst. She married Louis V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
1594 Vincenzo II Gonzaga Duke of Mantua Duke of Mantua and Duke of Montferrat from 1626 until his death.
1624 Guarino Guarini an Italian architect of the Piedmontese Baroque, active in Turin as well as Sicily, France, and Portugal. He was a Theatine priest, mathematician, and writer
1634 Katarzyna Sobieska the sister of King of Poland Jan III Sobieski and a noble lady. She married Władysław Dominik Zasławski in 1650. She was later married to Michał Kazimierz Radziwiłł on June 13, 1658
1634 Adam Krieger a German composer. Born in Driesen, Neumark, he studied organ with Samuel Scheidt in Halle. He succeeded Johann Rosenmüller as organist at Leipzig's Nikolaikirche and founded the city's Collegium Musicum before settling for the rest of his career in Dresden
1634 Sophia Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt Landgravine of Hesse-Darmstadt by birth and by marriage Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg.
1647 William Louis Duke of Württemberg the ruler of the senior Duchy of Württemberg from 1674 until his death in 1677.
1685 Jonas Alströmer a pioneer of agriculture and industry in Sweden.
1685 George Clifford III a wealthy Dutch banker and one of the directors of the Dutch East India Company. He is known for his keen interest in plants and gardens. His estate Hartekamp had a rich variety of plants and he engaged the Swedish naturalist Carl von Linné, who stayed at his estate from 1736 to 1738, to write Hortus Cliffortianus , a masterpiece of early botanical literature published in 1738, and for which Georg Dionysius Ehret did the illustrations. Many specimens from Clifford’s garden were also studied by Linnaeus for his Species Plantarum
1706 Johann Heinrich Zedler a bookseller and publisher. His most important achievement was the creation of a German encyclopedia, the Grosses Universal-Lexicon , the largest and most comprehensive German-language encyclopedia developed in the 18th century
1713 Giovanni Battista Locatelli an Italian opera director, impresario and owner of a private opera company.
1718 Israel Putnam an American army general officer and Freemason, popularly known as "Old Put", who fought with distinction at the Battle of Bunker Hill during the American Revolutionary War. His reckless courage and fighting spirit were known far beyond Connecticut's borders through the circulation of folk legends celebrating his exploits
1724 Wichard Joachim Heinrich von Möllendorf a Generalfeldmarschall of the Kingdom of Prussia.
1745 Johan Christian Fabricius a Danish zoologist, specialising in "Insecta", which at that time included all arthropods: insects, arachnids, crustaceans and others. He was a student of Carl Linnaeus, and is considered one of the most important entomologists of the 18th century, having named nearly 10,000 species of animal, and established the basis for modern insect classification
1746 George Elphinstone 1st Viscount Keith a British admiral active throughout the Napoleonic Wars.
1748 David Gilly a German architect and architecture-tutor in Prussia, known as the father of the architect Friedrich Gilly.
1750 Robert Anderson (editor and biographer) a Scottish author and critic.
1755 Stephen Groombridge a British merchant and astronomer.
1768 Joseph Bonaparte the elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily , and later King of Spain. After the fall of Napoleon, Joseph styled himself Comte de Survilliers
1777 Lorenzo Bartolini an Italian sculptor who infused his neoclassicism with a strain of sentimental piety and naturalistic detail, while he drew inspiration from the sculpture of the Florentine Renaissance rather than the overpowering influence of Antonio Canova that circumscribed his Florentine contemporaries.
1786 John Catron an American jurist who served as a US Supreme Court justice from 1837 to 1865.
1792 Enrico Marconi an Italian architect who spent most of his life in Congress Poland.
1794 Eilhard Mitscherlich perhaps best remembered today for his law of isomorphism , which states that compounds crystallizing together probably have similar structures and compositions. This relationship was used by Berzelius in early attempts to assign relative masses to the elements
1794 Heinrich Wilhelm Schott an Austrian botanist well known for his extensive work on aroids.
1796 Princess Charlotte of Wales the only child of George, Prince of Wales and Caroline of Brunswick. Had she outlived both her grandfather King George III and her father, she would have become Queen of the United Kingdom, but she died following childbirth at the age of 21
1800 Millard Fillmore the 13th President of the United States , the last Whig president, and the last president not to be affiliated with either the Democratic or Republican parties. Fillmore was the only Whig president that did not die in office or get expelled from the party, and Fillmore appointed the only Whig Supreme Court Justice. He is consistently included in the bottom 10 of historical rankings of Presidents of the United States. As Zachary Taylor's vice president, he assumed the presidency after Taylor's death. Fillmore was a lawyer from western New York state, and an early member of the Whig Party. He served in the state legislature , as a U.S. Representative , and as New York State Comptroller. He was elected vice president of the United States in 1848 as Taylor's running mate, and served from 1849 until Taylor's death in 1850, at the height of the "Crisis of 1850" over slavery
1818 Hermann Masius a German educator who was a native of Trebnitz.
1820 Leonti Nikolai Pavlovich a Baron, Russian general, member of the Caucasian War and a Catholic convert, taking a name Jean-Louis in the monastic life of the Carthusians.
1822 Theodor Aufrecht a German indologist.
1824 Julia Kavanagh an Irish novelist, born at Thurles in Tipperary, Ireland.
1826 John Wodehouse 1st Earl of Kimberley a British Liberal politician. He held office in every Liberal administration from 1852 to 1895, notably as Secretary of State for the Colonies and as Foreign Secretary
1827 Sandford Fleming a Scottish-born Canadian engineer and inventor. He proposed worldwide standard time zones, designed Canada's first postage stamp, left a huge body of surveying and map making, engineered much of the Intercolonial Railway and the Canadian Pacific Railway, and was a founding member of the Royal Society of Canada and founder of the Royal Canadian Institute, a science organization in Toronto
1830 Albert Bierstadt a German-American painter best known for his lavish, sweeping landscapes of the American West. To paint the scenes, Bierstadt joined several journeys of the Westward Expansion. Though not the first artist to record these sites, Bierstadt was the foremost painter of these scenes for the remainder of the 19th century
1831 Johann Friedrich Jaennicke a German "Regierungsrat" and entomologist mainly interested in Diptera.
1831 Heinrich von Stephan a general post director for the German Empire who reorganized the German postal service. He was integral in the founding of the Universal Postal Union in 1874, and in 1877 introduced the telephone to Germany
1832 James Munro (Australian politician) the 15th Premier of Victoria.
1833 Karl Wilhelm Leopold Krug a German businessman, naturalist, ethnographer, diplomat and supporter of scientific collections.
1833 Josep Manyanet i Vives venerated as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church. He founded the Sons of the Holy Family, a congregation of Catholic priests
1834 Johann Philipp Reis a self-taught German scientist and inventor. In 1861, he constructed the first make-and-break telephone, today called the Reis telephone
1837 Thomas Henry Ismay the founder of the Oceanic Steam Navigation Company, more commonly known as the White Star Line. His son was Joseph Bruce Ismay who travelled on the maiden voyage of his company's ocean liner, the RMS Titanic in 1912
1837 Milan Piroćanac a prominent Serbian statesman and politician, leader and founder of the Progressive party , and a Prime Minister of the Principality, later Kingdom of Serbia in the 19th century.
1839 Max Britzelmayr a German mycologist and lichenologist who was a native of Augsburg.
1844 Bernadette Soubirous venerated as a Christian mystic and Saint in the Catholic Church.
1845 Paul Deussen a German Orientalist and Sanskrit scholar. Strongly influenced by Arthur Schopenhauer, Deussen was a friend of Friedrich Nietzsche and Swami Vivekananda. In 1911, he founded the Schopenhauer Society. Professor Deussen was the first editor, in 1912, of the scholarly journal Schopenhauer Yearbook
1845 Ludwig III of Bavaria the last King of Bavaria, reigning from 1913 to 1918.
1847 Alexander Karpinsky a prominent Russian and Soviet geologist and mineralogist, and the president of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and later Academy of Sciences of the USSR, in 1917–1936.