Died on January 8

307 Emperor Hui of Jin the second emperor of the Jin Dynasty. Emperor Hui was a developmentally disabled ruler, and throughout his reign, there was constant internecine fighting between regents, imperial princes , and his wife Empress Jia Nanfeng for the right to control him , causing great suffering for the people and greatly undermining the stability of the Jin regime, eventually leading to Wu Hu rebellions that led to Jin's loss of northern and central China and the establishment of the competing Sixteen Kingdoms. He was briefly deposed by his granduncle Sima Lun, who usurped the throne himself, in 301, but later that year was restored to the throne and continued to be the emperor until 307, when he was poisoned, likely by the regent Sima Yue
482 Severinus of Noricum a Roman Catholic saint, known as the "Apostle to Noricum". It has been speculated that he was born in either Southern Italy or in the Roman province of Africa. Severinus himself refused to discuss his personal history before his appearance along the Danube in Noricum, after the death of Attila in 453. However, he did mention experiences with eastern desert monasticism, and his vita draws connections between Severinus and Saint Anthony of Egypt
926 Athelm an English churchman, who was the first Bishop of Wells, and later Archbishop of Canterbury. His translation, or moving from one bishopric to another, was a precedent for later translations of ecclesiastics, because prior to this time period such movements were considered illegal. While archbishop, Athelm crowned the new king and perhaps wrote the coronation service for the event. An older relative of Dunstan, a later Archbishop of Canterbury, Athelm helped promote Dunstan's early career. After Athelm's death, he was considered a saint
1107 Edgar King of Scotland king of Alba from 1097 to 1107. He was the fourth son of Malcolm III and Margaret of Wessex but the first to be considered eligible for the throne after the death of his father
1152 Conrad I Duke of Zähringen Duke of Zähringen from 1122 until his death and from 1127 also Rector of Burgundy. He spent most of his life stemming the growing power of the House of Hohenstaufen and to this end, allied himself with the House of Guelph
1198 Pope Celestine III born Giacinto Bobone, reigned from 21 March 1191 to his death in 1198. He was born into the noble Orsini family in Rome, though he was only a cardinal deacon before becoming pope. He was ordained a priest on 13 April 1191, ruled the church six years, nine months, and nine days before he died aged 92. He was buried at the Lateran
1232 Andronikos III of Trebizond Emperor of Trebizond from 1330 to 1332. He was the eldest son of Emperor Alexios II of Trebizond and his Iberian wife, Djiadjak Jaqeli of Samckhe. According to Michael Panaretos, he reigned for 15 months, which suggests that there was an interregnum of five months — from the death of his father in May to October 1330
1324 Marco Polo a Venetian merchant traveller whose travels are recorded in Livres des merveilles du monde , a book that introduced Europeans to Central Asia and China. He learned the mercantile trade from his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo, who travelled through Asia, and met Kublai Khan. In 1269, they returned to Venice to meet Marco for the first time. The three of them embarked on an epic journey to Asia, returning after 24 years to find Venice at war with Genoa; Marco was imprisoned and dictated his stories to a cellmate. He was released in 1299, became a wealthy merchant, married, and had three children. He died in 1324 and was buried in the church of San Lorenzo in Venice
1337 Giotto an Italian painter and architect from Florence in the late Middle Ages. He is generally considered the first in a line of great artists who contributed to the Italian Renaissance
1354 Charles de La Cerda Franco-Castilian nobleman and soldier, was the son of Alfonso de la Cerda and Isabelle d'Antoing.
1456 Lawrence Giustiniani C.R.S.A. is venerated as a saint by the Catholic Church. He was a canon regular who was appointed as a bishop and became the first Patriarch of Venice
1538 Beatrice of Portugal Duchess of Savoy Duchess of Savoy by marriage.
1557 Albert Alcibiades Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach a Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach, also known as Brandenburg-Bayreuth.
1560 Jan Łaski a Polish Protestant evangelical reformer. Owing to his influential work in England during the English Reformation, he is known to the English-speaking world by the Anglicised forms John a Lasco or John Laski
1570 Philibert de l'Orme also known as De l'Orme, de L'Orme, or Delorme.
1576 Lope García de Castro a Spanish colonial administrator, member of the Council of the Indies and of the Audiencias of Panama and Lima. From September 2, 1564 to November 26, 1569 he was interim viceroy of Peru
1598 John George Elector of Brandenburg a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg and a Duke of Prussia. A member of the House of Hohenzollern, he was the son of Joachim II Hector, Elector of Brandenburg, and his first wife Magdalena of Saxony
1642 Galileo Galilei an Italian physicist, mathematician, engineer, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the scientific revolution during the Renaissance. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism. Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy", the "father of modern physics", the "father of science", and "the father of modern science"
1664 Moses Amyraut a French Protestant theologian and metaphysician. He is perhaps most noted for his modifications to Calvinist theology regarding the nature of Christ's atonement, which is referred to as Amyraldism or Amyraldianism
1674 Justus van Egmont a Dutch Golden Age painter and designer of tapestry.
1693 Marguerite de la Sablière a French salonist, friend and patron of La Fontaine, was the wife of Antoine Rambouillet, sieur de la Sablière , a Protestant financier and poet entrusted with the administration of the royal estates, her maiden name being Marguerite Hessein.
1704 Lorenzo Bellini Italian physician and anatomist.
1707 John Dalrymple 1st Earl of Stair a Scottish noble who played a crucial role in the 1707 Treaty of Union between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England, that created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
1713 Arcangelo Corelli an Italian violinist and composer of the Baroque era.
1762 Teimuraz II of Kakheti a king of Kakheti, eastern Georgia, from 1732 to 1744, then of Kartli from 1744 until his death. Also a lyric poet
1775 John Baskerville best remembered as a printer and type designer.
1781 Alexey Nagayev a Russian hydrographer, cartographer and an admiral. Coming from scanty noble family, he graduated from Petersburg Naval Academy and worked ibidem. During the Seven Years' War Nagayev headed the hydrographic expedition to the Prussian shores. He also compiled the first atlases of the Bering Sea and Baltic Sea. Despite the absence of meridional grid, Nagayev's maps have been used for over fifty years. In 1764-65 Nagayev has been the supreme commander of the Kronstadt port. A bay in the Okhotsk Sea is named after him
1789 Jack Broughton an English bare-knuckle boxer. He was the first person to ever codify a set of rules to be used in such contests; prior to this the "rules" that existed were very loosely defined and tended to vary from contest to contest. His seven rules of how boxing would be conducted at his amphitheatre evolved later into the London Prize Ring rules which are widely regarded as the foundation stone of the sport that would become boxing, prior to the development of the Marquess of Queensberry rules in the 1860s
1794 Justus Möser a German jurist and social theorist.
1803 Domenico Cunego an Italian printmaker.
1815 Edward Pakenham an Anglo-Irish Army Officer and Politician. He was the brother-in law of the Duke of Wellington, with whom he served in the Peninsular War. Appointed as commander of British forces in North America in 1814, he was killed in action at the Battle of New Orleans
1815 Claude Juste Alexandre Legrand a French general. He commanded French divisions at several notable battles of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. He rose to senator on 5 April 1813, then Pair de France on 4 June 1814 and chevalier de Saint-Louis on 27 June 1814. He organised the defence of Chalon-sur-Saône in 1814 and died in Paris in 1815 of wounds received beside the River Berezina
1816 Franz von Albini a German judge and statesman, noted for organising the defence of German states against the French Revolution.
1819 Valentin Vodnik a Carniolan priest, journalist and poet of Slovene descent. He was active in the late Enlightenment period
1820 Demasduit a Beothuk woman, one of the last of her people on the island of Newfoundland, Canada.
1825 Eli Whitney an American inventor best known for inventing the cotton gin. This was one of the key inventions of the Industrial Revolution and shaped the economy of the Antebellum South. Whitney's invention made upland short cotton into a profitable crop, which strengthened the economic foundation of slavery in the United States. Despite the social and economic impact of his invention, Whitney lost many profits in legal battles over patent infringement for the cotton gin. Thereafter, he turned his attention into securing contracts with the government in the manufacture of muskets for the newly formed United States Army. He continued making arms and inventing until his death in 1825
1827 Pōmare III the king of Tahiti between 1821 and 1827. He was the second son of King Pōmare II and his wife Queen Teriʻitoʻoterai Teremoemoe. Sources differ on his relation to his sister with missionary sources citing them as half-siblings while later sources cited Teremoemoe as both of their mother
1831 Franz Krommer a Czech composer of classical music, whose 71-year life span began half a year after the death of George Frideric Handel and ended nearly four years after that of Ludwig van Beethoven.
1833 Édouard Jean Baptiste Milhaud a French politician, Général de Division, and comte d'Empire. He is considered one of the best generals of cavalry of Napoleon's army
1837 Duke Wilhelm in Bavaria Count Palatine of Birkenfeld-Gelnhausen between 1789 and 1799 and first Duke in Bavaria from 16 February 1799 until his death in 1837. From 17 December 1803 to 20 March 1806, Wilhelm was titled Duke of Berg. Wilhelm was a great-grandfather of Empress Elisabeth of Austria through his son Duke Pius August in Bavaria
1846 Georg Friedrich Puchta a German jurist.
1846 Granville Leveson-Gower 1st Earl Granville a British Whig statesman and diplomat.
1849 Pyotr Aleksandrovich Chicherin a prominent Russian general that fought against Napoleon’s invasion of Russia. As a result, his portrait was hung in the of the Military Gallery of the Winter Palace
1853 Mihály Bertalanits a Slovene cantor, teacher, and poet in Hungary.
1854 William Beresford 1st Viscount Beresford General The Hon. William Carr Beresford, 1st Viscount Beresford, 1st Marquis of Campo Maior, GCB, GCH, GCTE, PC /ˈwɪlɪəm kɑː ˈberɪsfəd/ , was an Anglo-Irish soldier and politician. A general in the British Army and a Marshal in the Portuguese Army, he fought alongside Field Marshal The 1st Duke of Wellington in the Peninsular War and held the office of Master-General of the Ordnance in 1828 in Wellington's first ministry
1855 Diponegoro a Javanese prince who opposed the Dutch colonial rule. He played an important role in the Java War. In 1830, the Dutch exiled him to Makassar
1857 Duke Eugen of Württemberg (1788–1857) a German prince and a General of Infantry in the Imperial Russian Army during the Napoleonic Wars.
1858 Friedrich Kühmstedt a German composer. He studied with Johann Nepomuk Hummel in Weimar. His work includes symphonies, fugues and preludes for organ
1859 Stefan Bogoridi a high ranking Ottoman statesman of Bulgarian origin, grandson of Sophronius of Vratsa and father of Alexander Bogoridi and Nicolae Vogoride. Stefan and his brother Athanase were named Bogoridi after Boris I, the first Christian ruler of Bulgaria. Their parents were Ioan Vogoridi and Ana N
1863 Fyodor Palen a Russian diplomat and administrator.