Born on January 9

727 Emperor Daizong of Tang an emperor of the Chinese Tang Dynasty.
1205 Giovanni di San Paolo a Benedictine monk at San Paolo fuori le Muri in Rome. He was made Cardinal-Deacon on February 20, 1193, then Cardinal Priest of Santa Prisca in May 1193 and finally Cardinal Bishop of Sabina at the end of 1204. He is often referred to as a member of the powerful Roman Colonna family, but modern scholars have established that this is based on the falsehood from the beginning of 16th century. More likely he was nephew of Celestine III and member of the Bobone family. He studied medicine at Amalfi
1455 William IV Duke of Jülich-Berg the last ruler of the Duchy of Jülich-Berg.
1475 Crinitus a Florentine humanist scholar.
1554 Pope Gregory XV Pope from 9 February 1621 to his death in 1623.
1571 Charles Bonaventure de Longueval Count of Bucquoy a military commander who fought for Spain and the Holy Roman Empire during the Thirty Years' War.
1590 Simon Vouet perhaps best remembered for helping to introduce the Italian Baroque style of painting to France.
1624 Empress Meishō the 109th Imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1658 Nicolas Coustou a French sculptor and academic.
1674 Reinhard Keiser a popular German opera composer based in Hamburg. He wrote over a hundred operas. Johann Adolf Scheibe considered him an equal to Johann Kuhnau, George Frideric Handel and Georg Philipp Telemann , but his work was largely forgotten for many decades
1685 Tiberius Hemsterhuis a Dutch philologist and critic.
1686 Andrew Michael Ramsay a Scottish-born writer who lived most of his adult life in France. He was a Baronet in the Jacobite Peerage
1715 Robert-François Damiens a French domestic servant whose attempted assassination of King Louis XV of France in 1757 culminated in his notorious and controversial public execution. He was the last person to be executed in France by drawing and quartering, the traditional and gruesome form of death penalty used for regicides
1728 Thomas Warton an English literary historian, critic, and poet. From 1785 to 1790 he was the Poet Laureate of England. He is sometimes called Thomas Warton the younger to distinguish him from his father Thomas Warton the elder. His most famous poem remains The Pleasures of Melancholy, a representative work of the Graveyard poets
1735 John Jervis 1st Earl of St Vincent an admiral in the Royal Navy and Member of Parliament in the United Kingdom. Jervis served throughout the latter half of the 18th century and into the 19th, and was an active commander during the Seven Years' War, American War of Independence, French Revolutionary War and the Napoleonic Wars. He is best known for his victory at the 1797 Battle of Cape Saint Vincent, from which he earned his titles, and as a patron of Horatio Nelson
1745 Caleb Strong a Massachusetts lawyer and politician who served as the sixth and tenth Governor of Massachusetts between 1800 and 1807, and again from 1812 until 1816. He assisted in drafting the Massachusetts State Constitution in 1779 and served as a state senator and on the Massachusetts Governor's Council before being elected to the inaugural United States Senate. A leading member of the Massachusetts Federalist Party, his political success delayed the decline of the Federalists in Massachusetts
1753 Luísa Todi a popular and successful Portuguese mezzo-soprano opera singer.
1754 Peter P. Dubrovsky a Russian bibliophile, diplomat, paleographer, secretary of the Russian Embassy in France, collector of manuscripts and books. Throughout his life he collected about 2000 manuscripts. Between 1805 and 1812 he worked at the Imperial Public Library
1764 John Elley a British soldier who joined the cavalry as a private, and rose to general officer rank. He fought with distinction during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, and later served as Governor of Galway and as Colonel of the 17th Lancers
1773 Cassandra Austen an amateur English watercolourist and the elder sister of Jane Austen.
1775 Antonio Villavicencio a Neogranadine Lieutenant statesman and soldier, born in Quito, and educated in Spain. He served in the Battle of Trafalgar as an office in the Spanish Navy. He was sent as a representative of the Crown to the New Granada, and his arrival was used as an excuse in Santafé de Bogotá to start a revolt, this was known as the Florero de Llorente which culminated with the proclamation of Independence from Spain. After this incident he resigned his office and joined the Independence cause. He was later captured and became the first martyr executed during the reign of terror of Pablo Morillo
1776 Ludwig Rhesa a consistorial councillor of the Evangelical Church in Prussia and a professor at the University of Königsberg in East Prussia.
1778 Thomas Brown (philosopher) a Scottish philosopher and poet.
1781 Johann Baptist von Spix a German biologist. From his expedition to Brazil he brought to Germany a large variety of specimens of plants, insects, mammals, birds, amphibians and fish. They constitute an important basis for today's National Zoological Collection in Munich. Numerous instances of ethnographic collections such as dance masks and the like are now part of the collection of the Museum of Ethnography in Munich
1794 Jacques-François Ancelot a French dramatist and litterateur.
1799 Arvid Adolf Etholén a naval officer, explorer and administrator who was employed by the Russian-American Company. He was a Swedish-speaking Finn who was born in Helsinki, Finland. Etholén first reached Sitka in the service of the Russian-American Company in 1818, rising to Chief Manager of the Company 1840-1845
1800 Pavel Medem a Russian diplomat and privy councillor.
1803 Yakov Rostovtsev a leading figure in the formulation of statutes which effectively emancipated the Russian serfs.
1807 Princess Charlotte of Württemberg was, as Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna of Russia, the wife of Grand Duke Michael Pavlovich of Russia. He was the youngest son of Tsar Paul I of Russia and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg
1810 Anna Bishop an English operatic soprano. She sang in many countries on every continent, and was the most widely travelled singer of the 19th century. She was married to the composer Henry Bishop but abandoned him for the French harpist, composer and entrepreneur Nicolas-Charles Bochsa. She and Bochsa were said to have been the inspiration for Trilby and Svengali in George du Maurier's 1894 novel Trilby
1811 Gilbert Abbott à Beckett an English humorist.
1812 Eduard van der Nüll an Austrian architect, who was one of the great masters in the historicist style of Vienna's Ringstrasse.
1818 Antoine Samuel Adam-Salomon a French sculptor and photographer.
1819 James Francis the 9th Premier of Victoria. Francis was born in London, and emigrated to Van Diemen's Land in 1847, where he became a businessman. He moved to Victoria in 1853 and became a leading Melbourne merchant. He was a director of the Bank of New South Wales and president of the Melbourne Chamber of Commerce. He married Mary Ogilvie and had eight sons and seven daughters
1822 Carol Benesch a Silesian architect of Historicism and Eclecticism orientation established in the Kingdom of Romania.
1823 Friedrich von Esmarch a German surgeon. He developed the Esmarch bandage and founded the Deutscher Samariter-Verein, the predecessor of the Deutscher Samariter-Bund
1829 Adolf Schlagintweit a German botanist and explorer of Central Asia. The standard author abbreviation A.Schlag. is used to indicate this individual as the author when citing a botanical name
1829 Thomas William Robertson usually known professionally as W. Robertson, was an English dramatist and innovative stage director best known for a series of realistic or naturalistic plays produced in London in the 1860s that broke new ground and inspired playwrights such as W.S. Gilbert and George Bernard Shaw
1832 Félix-Gabriel Marchand a journalist, author, notary and politician in Quebec, Canada. He was the 11th Premier of Quebec from May 24, 1897 to September 25, 1900
1833 Sir William Herschel 2nd Baronet a British officer in India who used fingerprints for identification on contracts.
1833 Jules Demersseman a French flautist and composer.
1834 Roger Vaughan an English Benedictine monk of Downside Abbey, and the second Roman Catholic Archbishop of Sydney from 1877 to 1883.
1835 Iwasaki Yatarō a Japanese financier and shipping industrialist, and the founder of Mitsubishi.
1837 Robert Chesebrough a chemist and the inventor of petroleum jelly, which he trade-named as Vaseline. In 1875 he founded the Chesebrough Manufacturing Company that in 1955 became Chesebrough-Ponds, a leading manufacturer of personal care products. Chesebrough patented the process of making petroleum jelly in 1872. Born in London, Chesebrough began his career as a chemist clarifying kerosene from the oil of sperm whales. The discovery of petroleum in Titusville, Pennsylvania rendered his job obsolete, so he traveled to Titusville to research what new materials might be created from the new fuel
1839 John Knowles Paine the first American-born composer to achieve fame for large-scale orchestral music. The senior member of a group of other composers collectively known as the Boston Six, Paine was one of those responsible for the first significant body of concert music by composers from the United States. The other five were Amy Beach, Arthur Foote, Edward MacDowell, George Chadwick, and Horatio Parker
1847 Antonio Vico (Cardinal) S.T.D. J.U.D. was a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and Prefect of the Congregation of Rites
1848 Princess Frederica of Hanover a member of the House of Hanover. After her marriage, she lived mostly in England, where she was a prominent member of Society
1849 John Hartley (tennis) Rev. John Thorneycroft Hartley was a former World 1 tennis player from England, and the only clergyman to win Wimbledon
1853 Henning von Holtzendorff a German admiral during World War I who became famous for his December 1916 memo to Kaiser Wilhelm II about unrestricted submarine warfare against the United Kingdom. He received the Pour le Mérite in 1917 and was made a Grand Admiral in 1918
1854 Lady Randolph Churchill the American-born English wife of Lord Randolph Churchill and the mother of British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.