Died on January 9

1150 Emperor Xizong of Jin reigned from February 10, 1135 to January 9, 1150 as an emperor of the Jin Dynasty which controlled northern China from 1115 to 1234. His birth name was Wányán Hélá. His Han Chinese name was Wányán Dǎn. During his reign, the Jurchens were engaged in a war with the Song Dynasty
1282 Abû 'Uthmân Sa'îd ibn Hakam al Qurashi the first Ra’îs of Manûrqa.
1283 Wen Tianxiang a scholar-general in the last years of the Southern Song Dynasty. For his resistance to Kublai Khan's invasion of the Song, and for his refusal to yield to the Yuan Dynasty despite being captured and tortured, he is a popular symbol of patriotism and righteousness in China. He is considered one of three heroes of the Song's last years, alongside Lu Xiufu and Zhang Shijie
1463 William Neville 1st Earl of Kent an English nobleman and soldier. He fought during the latter part of the Hundred Years War, and during the English dynastic Wars of the Roses
1472 Hans Pleydenwurff a German painter.
1499 John Cicero Elector of Brandenburg Elector of Brandenburg from 1486 until his death, the fourth of the House of Hohenzollern. After his death he received the cognomen Cicero, after the Roman orator Cicero, but the elector's eloquence and interest in the arts is doubtful
1511 Demetrios Chalkokondyles a Greek humanist, scholar and Professor who taught the Greek language in Italy for over forty years; at Padua, Perugia, Milan and Florence. Among his pupils were Janus Lascaris, Poliziano, Leo X, Castiglione, Giglio Gregorio Giraldi, Stefano Negri, and Giovanni Maria Cattaneo, he was associated with Marsilius Ficinus, Angelus Politianus, and Theodorus Gaza in the revival of letters in the Western world. One of his pupils at Florence was the famous Johann Reuchlin. Chalkokondyles published the first printed publications of Homer , of Isocrates , and of the Suda lexicon. In 1463 Chalkokondyles delivered an exhortation for crusade and the recovery and liberation of his homeland Greece from the invading Ottoman Turks. He was one of the most eminent Greek scholars in the West and also contributed to Italian Renaissance literature and was the last of the Greek humanists who taught Greek literature at the great universities of the Italian Renaissance
1514 Anne of Brittany the last independent Breton ruler, and twice the queen of France. She was born in Nantes, Brittany, and was the daughter of Duke Francis II of Brittany and Margaret of Foix. Upon her father's death, she became Duchess of Brittany, Countess of Nantes, Montfort, and Richmond, and Viscountess of Limoges. In her time, she was the richest European woman
1529 Wang Yangming a Chinese idealist Neo-Confucian philosopher, official, educationist, calligraphist and general during the Ming dynasty. After Zhu Xi, he is commonly regarded as the most important Neo-Confucian thinker, with interpretations of Confucianism that denied the rationalist dualism of the orthodox philosophy of Zhu Wang was known as "Yangming Xiansheng" and/or "Yangming Zi" in literary circles: both mean "Master Yangming"
1534 Johannes Aventinus the pen name of Johann Georg Turmair or Thurmayr, a Bavarian Renaissance humanist historian and philologist. He authored the 1523 Annals of Bavaria, a valuable record of the early history of Germany
1543 Guillaume du Bellay a French diplomat and general under King Francis I.
1561 Amago Haruhisa a powerful warlord in Chūgoku region, Japan. He is the second son of Amago Masahisa. Initially named Akihisa , he changed his name to Haruhisa in 1541 after Ashikaga Yoshiharu offered to let him use a kanji from his name
1571 Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon a Commander of the Knights of Malta, and later a French naval officer who attempted to help the Huguenots in France escape persecution.
1586 Paul Wittich a German mathematician and astronomer whose Capellan geoheliocentric model, in which the inner planets Mercury and Venus orbit the sun but the outer planets Mars, Jupiter and Saturn orbit the Earth, may have directly inspired Tycho Brahe's more radically heliocentric geoheliocentric model in which all the 5 known primary planets orbited the Sun, which in turn orbited the stationary Earth.
1598 Jasper Heywood an English Jesuit priest. He is known as the English translator of three Latin plays of Seneca, the Troas , the Thyestes and Hercules Furens
1757 Louis Bertrand Castel a French mathematician born in Montpellier, and entered the order of the Jesuits in 1703. Having studied literature, he afterwards devoted himself entirely to mathematics and natural philosophy. He wrote several scientific works, that which attracted most attention at the time being his Optique des couleurs , or treatise on the melody of colors. He also wrote Traité de physique sur la pesanteur universelle des corps , Mathématique universelle , and a critical account of the system of Sir Isaac Newton in 1743
1757 Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle a French author. Isaiah Berlin said Fontenelle "was the most civilized man of his time, and indeed of most times." In 1935, the lunar crater Fontenelle was named after him
1766 Thomas Birch an English historian.
1774 Jacques-François Blondel a French architect and teacher. After running his own highly successful school of architecture for many years, he was appointed Professor of Architecture at the Académie d'Architecture in 1762, and his Cours d'architecture largely superseded a similarly titled book published in 1675 by his famous namesake, François Blondel, who had occupied the same post in the late 17th century
1774 Józef Andrzej Załuski a Polish Catholic priest, Bishop of Kiev, a sponsor of learning and culture, and a renowned bibliophile. A member of the Polish nobility , bearing the hereditary Junosza coat-of-arms, he is most famous as co-founder of the Załuski Library, one of the largest 18th-century book collections in the world
1799 Maria Gaetana Agnesi an Italian mathematician and philosopher.
1800 Jean Étienne Championnet Vachier, called Championnet , French general, enlisted in the army at an early age and served in the Great Siege of Gibraltar.
1803 Kyrylo Rozumovskyi a Ukrainian-born Russian Registered Cossack from the Kozelets, Kiev Regiment, Russian Empire , who served as the last Hetman of Zaporozhian Host of Left- and Right-Bank of Dnieper until 1764, from 1764 Razumovsky was the Field marshal of Russian Army.
1805 Noble Wimberly Jones an American physician and statesman from Savannah, Georgia. A leading Georgia patriot in the American Revolution, he served as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1781 and 1782
1816 Peter P. Dubrovsky a Russian bibliophile, diplomat, paleographer, secretary of the Russian Embassy in France, collector of manuscripts and books. Throughout his life he collected about 2000 manuscripts. Between 1805 and 1812 he worked at the Imperial Public Library
1819 Catherine Pavlovna of Russia the fourth daughter of Tsar Paul I of Russia and Princess Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. She became the Queen of Württemberg upon her marriage to her first cousin Crown Prince William who eventually became King William I of Württemberg in 1816
1820 Ferdinand Jagemann a German painter.
1832 Karl von Kügelgen a landscape and history painter, a Russian court and cabinet painter in Petersburg, a member of the Royal Russian Academy of Arts in Petersburg, and a member of the Royal Prussian Academy of Arts in Berlin.
1836 Pierre François Lacenaire a French poet and murderer.
1841 Pierre-Augustin Hulin a French general under Napoleon Bonaparte who took part in the storming of the Bastille, the trial of the Duke d'Enghien, and the foiling of the Malet coup.
1843 William Hedley born in Newburn, near Newcastle upon Tyne. He was one of the leading industrial engineers of the early 19th century, and was instrumental in several major innovations in early railway development. While working as a 'viewer' or manager at Wylam Colliery near Newcastle upon Tyne, he built the first practical steam locomotive which relied simply on the adhesion of iron wheels on iron rails
1844 Jean-Antoine Constantin a French painter.
1848 Caroline Herschel a German British astronomer and the sister of astronomer Sir William Herschel with whom she worked throughout both of their careers. Her most significant contributions to astronomy were the discoveries of several comets and in particular the periodic comet 35P/Herschel-Rigollet, which bears her name
1849 David Pierre Giottino Humbert de Superville a Dutch artist and art scholar. He was a draughtsman, lithographer, etcher, and portrait painter, and also wrote treatises on art, including the influential work Essai sur les signes inconditionnels dans l'art. His 1815 painting of the jurist and statesman Johan Melchior Kemper is now part of the collection of the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam
1851 Michel Martin Drolling a neoclassic French painter, painter of history and portraitist.
1856 Karl Friedrich von Klöden a German educator, historian, and geographer.
1856 Neophytos Vamvas a Greek cleric and educator of the 19th century.
1858 Anson Jones a doctor, businessman, congressman, and the fourth and last President of the Republic of Texas, sometimes called the "Architect of Annexation".
1862 Pauline-Marie Jaricot a French laywoman, the foundress of the Society of the Propagation of the Faith and the Living Rosary Association.
1870 De Lacy Evans a British Army general who served in four wars in which the United Kingdom's troops took part in the 19th century. He was later a long-serving Member of Parliament
1872 Henry Halleck a United States Army officer, scholar, and lawyer. A noted expert in military studies, he was known by a nickname that became derogatory, "Old Brains." He was an important participant in the admission of California as a state and became a successful lawyer and land developer. Early in the American Civil War, he was a senior Union Army commander in the Western Theater and then served for almost two years as general-in-chief of all U.S. armies. Halleck became chief of staff to Gen. Ulysses Grant, when he assumed the position of general-in-chief
1873 Napoleon III the first President of the French Second Republic and, as Napoleon III, the Emperor of the Second French Empire. He was the nephew and heir of Napoleon He was the first President of France to be elected by a direct popular vote. However, when he was blocked by the Constitution and Parliament from running for a second term, he organized a coup d'état in 1851, and then took the throne as Napoleon III on 2 December 1852, the forty-eighth anniversary of Napoleon I's coronation
1876 Samuel Gridley Howe a nineteenth century United States physician, abolitionist, and an advocate of education for the blind. He organized and was the first director of the Perkins Institution
1877 Alexander Brullov a Russian artist associated with Russian Neoclassicism.
1878 Victor Emmanuel II of Italy king of Sardinia from 1849 until, on 17 March 1861, he assumed the title King of Italy to become the first king of a united Italy since the 6th century, a title he held until his death in 1878. The Italians gave him the epithet Father of the Fatherland
1884 Daniel Harrwitz a Jewish German chess master.
1889 Alessandro Gavazzi an Italian preacher and patriot. He at first became a monk , and attached himself to the Barnabites at Naples, where he afterwards acted as professor of rhetoric
1895 Aaron Lufkin Dennison an American watchmaker and businessman who founded a number of companies.
1897 Thomas Gwyn Elger a British selenographer and one of the preeminent lunar observers of the Victorian age, best known for his lunar map, which was regarded as one of the best available until the 1960s. He was the first director of the Lunar Section of the British Astronomical Association , and is remembered by the lunar crater Elger
1901 Richard Copley Christie an English lawyer, University teacher, philanthropist and bibliophile.