January 9 events in history

475 Byzantine Emperor Zeno is forced to flee his capital at Constantinople, and his general, Basiliscus gains control of the empire
681 Twelfth Council of Toledo: King Erwig of the Visigoths initiates a council in which he implements diverse measures against the Jews in Spain
1127 Jin–Song wars: Invading Jurchen soldiers from the Jin Dynasty besiege and sack Bianjing (Kaifeng), the capital of the Song Dynasty of China, and abduct Emperor Qinzong and others, ending the Northern Song Dynasty
1150 Prince Hailing of Jin and other court officials murder Emperor Xizong of Jin. Hailing succeeds him as emperor
1349 The Jewish population of Basel, Switzerland, believed by the residents to be the cause of the ongoing Black Death, is rounded up and incinerated
1431 Judges' investigations for the trial of Joan of Arc begin in Rouen, France, the seat of the English occupation government
1760 Afghans defeat Marathas in the Battle of Barari Ghat
1788 Connecticut becomes the fifth state to be admitted to the United States
1793 Jean-Pierre Blanchard becomes the first person to fly in a balloon in the United States
1799 British Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger introduces an income tax of two shillings to the pound to raise funds for Great Britain's war effort in the Napoleonic Wars
1806 Admiral Horatio Lord Nelson receives a state funeral and is interred in St Paul's Cathedral
1816 Sir Humphry Davy tests his safety lamp for miners at Hebburn Colliery
1822 The Portuguese prince Pedro I of Brazil decides to stay in Brazil against the orders of the Portuguese King João VI, beginning the Brazilian independence process
1839 The French Academy of Sciences announces the Daguerreotype photography process
1857 The Fort Tejon earthquake strikes California, registering an estimated magnitude of 7.9
1858 Anson Jones, the last President of the Republic of Texas, commits suicide
1861 American Civil War: The "Star of the West" incident occurs near Charleston, South Carolina. It is considered by some historians to be the "First Shots of the American Civil War"
1861 Mississippi becomes the second state to secede from the Union before the outbreak of the American Civil War
1863 American Civil War: the Battle of Fort Hindman begins in Arkansas
1878 Umberto I becomes King of Italy
1880 The Great Gale of 1880 devastates parts of Oregon and Washington with high winds and heavy snow
1894 New England Telephone and Telegraph installs the first battery-operated telephone switchboard in Lexington, Massachusetts
1903 Hallam Tennyson, 2nd Baron Tennyson, son of the poet Alfred Tennyson, becomes the second Governor-General of Australia
1909 Ernest Shackleton, leading the Nimrod Expedition to the South Pole, plants the British flag 97 nautical miles (180 km; 112 mi) from the South Pole, the farthest anyone had ever reached at that time
1914 Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity Inc., the first historically black intercollegiate Greek-letter fraternity to be officially recognized at Howard University, is founded
1916 World War I: The Battle of Gallipoli concludes with an Ottoman Empire victory when the last Allied forces are evacuated from the peninsula
1917 World War I: the Battle of Rafa is fought near the Egyptian border with Palestine
1918 Battle of Bear Valley: The last battle of the American Indian Wars
1921 Greco-Turkish War: The First Battle of İnönü, the first battle of the war, begins near Eskişehir in Anatolia
1923 Juan de la Cierva makes the first autogyro flight
1923 Lithuanian residents of the Memel Territory rebel against the League of Nations' decision to leave the area as a mandated region under French control
1927 A fire at the Laurier Palace movie theatre in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, kills 78 children
1938 Paul of Greece marries Frederica of Hanover in Athens
1941 World War II: First flight of the Avro Lancaster
1941 World War II: The Greek Triton (Y-5) sinks the Italian submarine Neghelli in Otranto
1945 World War II: The United States invades Luzon in the Philippines
1947 Elizabeth "Betty" Short, the Black Dahlia, is last seen alive
1957 British Prime Minister Sir Anthony Eden resigns from office following his failure to retake the Suez Canal from Egyptian sovereignty
1960 President of Egypt Gamal Abdel Nasser opens construction on the Aswan Dam by detonating ten tons of dynamite to demolish twenty tons of granite on the east bank of the Nile
1964 Martyrs' Day: Several Panamanian youths try to raise the Panamanian flag on the U.S.-controlled Panama Canal Zone, leading to fighting between U.S. military and Panamanian civilians
1965 The Mirzapur Cadet College formally opens for academic activities in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh)
1991 Representatives from the United States and Iraq meet at the Geneva Peace Conference to try to find a peaceful resolution to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait
1992 The Assembly of the Serb People in Bosnia and Herzegovina proclaims the creation of Republika Srpska, a new state within Yugoslavia
1996 First Chechen War: Chechen separatists launch a raid against the helicopter airfield and later a civilian hospital in the city of Kizlyar in the neighboring Dagestan, which turns into a massive hostage crisis involving thousands of civilians
2004 An inflatable boat carrying illegal Albanian emigrants stalls near the Karaburun Peninsula while on the way to Brindisi, Italy; exposure to the elements kills 28
2005 Mahmoud Abbas wins the election to replace Yasser Arafat as President of the Palestinian National Authority. He replaces interim president Rawhi Fattouh
2005 The Sudan People's Liberation Movement and the Government of Sudan sign the Comprehensive Peace Agreement to end the Second Sudanese Civil War
2007 Apple CEO Steve Jobs unveils the first iPhone
2011 Iran Air Flight 277 crashes near Orumiyeh in the northeast of the country, killing 77 people
2013 A SeaStreak ferry traveling to lower Manhattan, New York City, crashes into the dock, injuring 85 people