January events in history

January 10, 9 The Western Han Dynasty ends when Wang Mang claims that the divine Mandate of Heaven called for the end of the dynasty and the beginning of his own, the Xin Dynasty
January 24, 41 Roman Emperor Caligula, known for his eccentricity and sadistic despotism, is assassinated by his disgruntled Praetorian Guards. The Guard then proclaims Caligula's uncle Claudius as Emperor
January 25, 41 After a night of negotiation, Claudius is accepted as Roman Emperor by the Senate
January 1, 69 The Roman legions in Germania Superior refuse to swear loyalty to Galba. They rebel and proclaim Vitellius as emperor
January 10, 69 Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus is appointed by Galba as deputy Roman Emperor
January 15, 69 Otho seizes power in Rome, proclaiming himself Emperor of Rome, but rules for only three months before committing suicide
January 27, 98 Trajan succeeded his adoptive father Nerva as Roman emperor; under his rule the Roman Empire would reach its maximum extent
January 1, 193 The Senate chooses Pertinax against his will to succeed Commodus as Roman emperor
January 10, 236 Pope Fabian succeeds Anterus to become the twentieth pope of Rome
January 20, 250 Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Pope Fabian is martyred
January 8, 307 Jin Huidi, Chinese Emperor of the Jin Dynasty, is poisoned and succeeded by his son Jin Huaidi
January 31, 314 Silvester I begins his reign as Pope of the Catholic Church, succeeding Pope Miltiades
January 18, 350 General Magnentius deposes Roman Emperor Constans and proclaims himself Emperor
January 2, 366 The Alemanni cross the frozen Rhine River in large numbers, invading the Roman Empire
January 16, 378 General Siyaj K'ak' conquers Tikal, enlarging the domain of King Spearthrower Owl of Teotihuacán
January 19, 379 Emperor Gratian elevates Flavius Theodosius at Sirmium to Augustus, and gives him power over all the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire
January 8, 387 Siyaj K'ak' conquers Waka
January 23, 393 Roman Emperor Theodosius I proclaims his eight-year old son Honorius co-emperor
January 17, 395 Emperor Theodosius I dies in Milan, the Roman Empire is re-divided into an eastern and a western half. The Eastern Roman Empire is centered in Constantinople under Arcadius, son of Theodosius, and the Western Roman Empire in Mediolanum under Honorius, his brother (aged 10)
January 1, 404 An infuriated Roman mob tears Telemachus, a Christian monk, to pieces for trying to stop a gladiators' fight in the public arena held in Rome
January 1, 414 Galla Placidia, half-sister of Emperor Honorius, is married to the Visigothic king Ataulf at Narbonne. The wedding is celebrated with Roman festivities and magnificent gifts from the Gothic booty
January 1, 417 Emperor Honorius forces Galla Placidia into marriage to Constantius, his famous general (magister militum)
January 18, 474 Seven-year-old Leo II succeeds his maternal grandfather Leo I as Byzantine emperor. He dies ten months later
January 9, 475 Byzantine Emperor Zeno is forced to flee his capital at Constantinople, and his general, Basiliscus gains control of the empire
January 13, 532 Nika riots in Constantinople
January 18, 532 Nika riots in Constantinople fail
January 2, 533 Mercurius becomes Pope John II, the first pope to adopt a new name upon elevation to the papacy
January 16, 550 Gothic War: The Ostrogoths, under King Totila, conquer Rome after a long siege, by bribing the Isaurian garrison
January 22, 565 Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus
January 22, 613 Constantine (8-month-old) is crowned as co-emperor (Caesar) by his father Heraclius at Constantinople
January 19, 639 Clovis II, king of Neustria and Burgundy, is crowned
January 19, 649 Conquest of Kucha: The forces of Kucha surrender after a forty-day siege led by Tang Dynasty general Ashina She'er, establishing Tang control over the northern Tarim Basin in Xinjiang
January 20, 649 King Chindasuinth, at the urging of bishop Braulio of Zaragoza, crowns his son Recceswinth as co-ruler of the Visigothic Kingdom
January 27, 661 The Rashidun Caliphate ends with the death of Ali
January 9, 681 Twelfth Council of Toledo: King Erwig of the Visigoths initiates a council in which he implements diverse measures against the Jews in Spain
January 25, 750 In the Battle of the Zab, the Abbasid rebels defeat the Umayyad Caliphate, leading to overthrow of the dynasty
January 6, 754 Pepin III (the Short) is re-consecrated by Pope Stephen II as King of the Franks at the Basilica of Saint-Denis outside Paris
January 29, 757 An Lushan, leader of a revolt against the Tang Dynasty and emperor of Yan, is murdered by his own son, An Qingxu
January 21, 763 The Battle of Bakhamra between Alids and Abbasids near Kufa ends in a decisive Abbasid victory
January 4, 871 Battle of Reading: Æthelred of Wessex fights, and is defeated by, a Danish invasion army
January 8, 871 Alfred the Great leads a West Saxon army to repel an invasion by Danelaw Vikings
January 13, 888 Odo, Count of Paris becomes King of the Franks
January 29, 904 Sergius III comes out of retirement to take over the papacy from the deposed antipope Christopher
January 16, 929 Emir Abd-ar-Rahman III established the Caliphate of Córdoba
January 23, 971 In China, the war elephant corps of the Southern Han are soundly defeated at Shao by crossbow fire from Song Dynasty troops
January 1, 1001 Grand Prince Stephen I of Hungary is named the first King of Hungary by Pope Sylvester II
January 30, 1018 The Peace of Bautzen is signed between Poland and Germany
January 11, 1055 Theodora is crowned Empress of the Byzantine Empire
January 5, 1066 Edward the Confessor dies childless, sparking a succession crisis that will eventually lead to the Norman conquest of England
January 6, 1066 Harold Godwinson (or Harold II) is crowned King of England