Born on July 1

965 Alhazen an Arab, Muslim, scientist, polymath, mathematician, astronomer and philosopher who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, astronomy, mathematics, meteorology, visual perception and the scientific method.
1311 Liu Ji (14th century) a great military strategist, officer, statesman and poet of the late Yuan and early Ming Dynasty period of Chinese history. He was born in Qingtian County. He was the main strategist and advisor of the Yuan Dynasty era rebel leader Zhu Yuanzhang , who later became the founding emperor of the Ming Dynasty.. Liu Ji is also known for his prophecies, as he has been described as the " Divine Chinese Nostradamus". With his contemporary general and scholar Jiao Yu, he was one of the co-editors of the military treatise known as the Huolongjing. His most famous military treatise is known as the Lessons of War
1336 Philip Duke of Orléans a Duke of Orléans, Touraine and Count of Valois, the fifth son of King Philip VI of France and his wife Joan the Lame.
1368 Braccio da Montone an Italian condottiero.
1381 Lawrence Giustiniani C.R.S.A. is venerated as a saint by the Catholic Church. He was a canon regular who was appointed as a bishop and became the first Patriarch of Venice
1481 Christian II of Denmark reigned as King of Denmark and Norway from 1513 until 1523 and of Sweden from 1520 until 1521. He was the oldest son of King John and belonged to the House of Oldenburg. Denmark was then an elective monarchy in which the nobility elected the new king, who had to share his power with them. After his short reign in Sweden, where he was also known as Christian the Tyrant , he was deposed by the nobleman Gustav Vasa. His reign in Denmark and Norway was cut short when his uncle deposed him and took the thrones as Frederick Christian was then exiled to the Netherlands, then ruled by his brother-in-law, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
1506 Louis II of Hungary King of Hungary, Croatia and King of Bohemia from 1516 to 1526. He was killed during the Battle of Mohács fighting the Ottomans
1532 Marino Grimani (doge) the 89th Doge of Venice, reigning from 26 April 1595 until his death. Grimani's reign as doge was principally remembered for two reasons: the splendid celebrations for the coronation of his wife, Morosina Morosini; and the beginning of the quarrel with the papacy that resulted in Pope Paul V placing the Republic of Venice under papal interdict in the reign of Grimani's successor, Leonardo Donato
1534 Frederick II of Denmark King of Denmark and Norway and duke of Schleswig from 1559 until his death.
1574 Joseph Hall (bishop) an English bishop, satirist and moralist. His contemporaries knew him as a devotional writer, and a high-profile controversialist of the early 1640s. In church politics, he tended in fact to a middle way
1586 Claudio Saracini an Italian composer, lutenist, and singer of the early Baroque era. He was one of the most famous and distinguished composers of monody
1591 William Douglas 9th Earl of Angus a Scottish nobleman and zealous supporter of Mary, Queen of Scots.
1595 Albrycht Stanisław Radziwiłł a Polish-Lithuanian szlachcic, a Reichfürst and a politician from Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. He served as the Lesser Lithuanian Chancellor from 1619, the Grand Chancellor of Lithuania and Starosta of Vilnius from 1623, was a member of the powerful Radziwiłł family, last of the Ołyka line, fourth to bear the name of Albert. During his life he was the influential politician. He was Catholic and staunch supporter of Counter-Reformation and enemy of Protestants
1627 Anna Maria of Mecklenburg-Schwerin a German noblewoman, a member of the House of Mecklenburg and by marriage Duchess of Saxe-Weissenfels.
1633 Johann Heinrich Heidegger born at Bäretswil, in the Canton of Zürich.
1646 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz a German mathematician and philosopher. He occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy
1654 Louis Joseph Duke of Vendôme a French military commander during the War of the Grand Alliance and War of the Spanish Succession, Marshal of France.
1663 Franz Xaver Murschhauser a German composer and theorist.
1723 Pedro Rodríguez Conde de Campomanes born at Santa Eulalia de Sorribia, in Asturias.
1725 Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur comte de Rochambeau a French nobleman and general who played a major role in helping America win independence during the American Revolution. During this time, he served as commander-in-chief of the French Expeditionary Force which embarked from France in order to help the American Continental Army fight against British forces
1727 Francesco Giuseppe Casanova an Italian painter and a younger brother of Giacomo Casanova.
1731 Adam Duncan 1st Viscount Duncan a British admiral who defeated the Dutch fleet off Camperdown on 11 October 1797. This victory was considered one of the most significant actions in naval history
1742 Georg Christoph Lichtenberg a German scientist, satirist, and Anglophile. As a scientist, he was the first to hold a professorship explicitly dedicated to experimental physics in Germany. Today, he is remembered for his posthumously published notebooks, which he himself called Sudelbücher, a description modeled on the English bookkeeping term "scrapbooks", and for his discovery of the strange tree-like patterns now called Lichtenberg figures
1750 Heshen from the Manchu Niohuru clan and an official of the Qing dynasty who was favoured by the Qianlong Emperor. Born Shanbao , his given name was later changed to Heshen. His courtesy name was Zhizhai. He was a member of the Plain Red Banner, and known as the most corrupt official in Chinese history. Heshen was born as the son of a Manchu military officer and was selected to go to the most privileged school for Manchu aristocratic boys. He lost his mother when he was young and it was said he and his younger brother had a hard life under his stepmother. However, it was reported that Heshen was an excellent student, knowing several languages including Mandarin, Manchu, Mongolian and Tibetan. In 1772, he began work in the Imperial Palace, assigned as an imperial bodyguard and was stationed at the gates to the Forbidden City
1752 Thomas Pelham-Clinton 3rd Duke of Newcastle a British soldier and politician.
1767 Prince David of Georgia a Georgian royal prince , writer and scholar, was a regent of the Kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti, eastern Georgia, from December 28, 1800 to January 18, 1801.
1771 Ferdinando Paer an Italian composer known for his operas and oratorios. He was of Austrian descent and used the German spelling Pär in application for printing in Venice, and later in France the spelling Paër
1783 Tilman-François Suys a Belgian architect who also worked in the Netherlands.
1784 Joseph Marshall Walker a Louisiana soldier and politician. He was the 13th Governor of Louisiana, from 1850-1853
1788 Jean-Victor Poncelet a French engineer and mathematician who served most notably as the commandant general of the École polytechnique. He is considered a reviver of projective geometry, and his work Traité des propriétés projectives des figures is considered the first definitive paper on the subject since Gérard Desargues' work on it in the 17th century. He later wrote an introduction to it; Applications d’analyse et de géométrie
1800 Karl Witte a German jurist and scholar of Dante Alighieri.
1801 Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann a German physiologist, anatomist, and philosopher. He specialized in the study of the nervous and optic systems
1804 George Sand a French novelist and memoirist. She is equally well known for her much publicized romantic affairs with a number of artists, including the composer and pianist Frédéric Chopin and the writer Alfred de Musset
1804 Charles Gordon Greene an American journalist.
1805 David Urquhart a Scottish diplomat and writer. He was a member of parliament 1847–52
1807 Thomas Green Clemson an American politician and statesman, serving as an ambassador and the United States Superintendent of Agriculture. He served in the Confederate States Army. He founded Clemson University, located in South Carolina
1812 Abbas I of Egypt the Wāli of Egypt and Sudan. He was a son of Tusun Pasha, and a grandson of Muhammad Ali, founder of the reigning Muhammad Ali Dynasty of Egypt and Sudan. The Chambers Biographical Dictionary says of him: "igoted and sensual, he did much to undo the progress made under Muhammad Ali."
1813 Pavel Annenkov a significant Russian literary critic and memoirist.
1818 Josiah Gorgas one of the few Northern-born Confederate generals and was later president of the University of Alabama.
1818 Henrietta Treffz best known as the first wife of Johann Strauss II and a well-known mezzo-soprano appearing in England in 1849 to great acclaim.
1818 Ignaz Semmelweis a Hungarian physician of German extraction now known as an early pioneer of antiseptic procedures. Described as the "savior of mothers", Semmelweis discovered that the incidence of puerperal fever could be drastically cut by the use of hand disinfection in obstetrical clinics. Puerperal fever was common in mid-19th-century hospitals and often fatal, with mortality at 10%–35%. Semmelweis proposed the practice of washing with chlorinated lime solutions in 1847 while working in Vienna General Hospital's First Obstetrical Clinic, where doctors' wards had three times the mortality of midwives' wards. He published a book of his findings in Etiology, Concept and Prophylaxis of Childbed Fever
1819 John Milton Brannan a career American Army officer who served in the Mexican-American War and as a Union general in the American Civil War, in command of the Department of Key West in Florida and assigned to Fort Zachary Taylor. His first wife was the daughter of Colonel Ichabod Crane; she mysteriously disappeared after taking a ferry from Staten Island to lower Manhattan and was presumed to have been murdered
1822 Nguyễn Đình Chiểu a Vietnamese poet who was known for his nationalist and anti-colonial writings against the French colonization of Cochinchina, the European name for the southern part of Vietnam.
1827 August Silberstein an Austrian writer, born in Ofen, Budapest. Silberstein was educated at the University of Vienna and supported the 1848 revolts in Austria-Hungary with his articles in the German satire periodical Leuchtkugeln, which was banned in the middle of 1851. As a result, Silbertein was forced to leave his home
1831 Wojciech Gerson a leading Polish painter of mid-19th century, and one of the foremost representatives of the Polish school of Realism during the foreign Partitions of Poland. He served as long-time professor of the School of Fine Arts in Warsaw, and taught future luminaries of Polish neo-romanticism including Józef Chełmoński, Leon Wyczółkowski, Władysław Podkowiński, Józef Pankiewicz and Anna Bilińska-Bohdanowiczowa among others. He also wrote art-reviews and published a book of anatomy for the artists. A large number of his artwork has been stolen by Nazi Germany in World War II, and never recovered
1833 Otto Dietze a German-born architect.
1834 Jadwiga Łuszczewska a Polish poet and novelist. She was born and died in Warsaw
1835 Alfred von Gutschmid born at Loschwitz near.
1844 Verney Lovett Cameron an English traveller in Central Africa and the first European to cross equatorial Africa from sea to sea.
1846 Ludwig von Sybel a German archaeologist.