July 1 events in history

69 Tiberius Julius Alexander orders his Roman legions in Alexandria to swear allegiance to Vespasian as Emperor
552 Battle of Taginae: Byzantine forces under Narses defeat the Ostrogoths in Italy. During the fightings king Totila is mortally wounded
1097 Battle of Dorylaeum: Crusaders led by prince Bohemond of Taranto defeat a Seljuk army led by sultan Kilij Arslan I
1431 The Battle of La Higueruela takes place in Granada, leading to a modest advance of the Kingdom of Castile during the Reconquista
1523 Johann Esch and Heinrich Voes become the first Lutheran martyrs, burned at the stake by Roman Catholic authorities in Brussels
1569 Union of Lublin: The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania confirm a real union; the united country is called the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth or the Republic of Both Nations
1643 First meeting of the Westminster Assembly, a council of theologians ("divines") and members of the Parliament of England appointed to restructure the Church of England, at Westminster Abbey in London
1690 Glorious Revolution: Battle of the Boyne in Ireland (as reckoned under the Julian calendar)
1766 Jean-François de la Barre, a young French nobleman, is tortured and beheaded before his body is burnt on a pyre along with a copy of Voltaire's Dictionnaire philosophique nailed to his torso for the crime of not saluting a Roman Catholic religious procession in Abbeville, France
1770 Lexell's Comet passes closer to the Earth than any other comet in recorded history, approaching to a distance of 0.0146 a.u
1782 Raid on Lunenburg: American privateers attack the British settlement of Lunenburg, Nova Scotia
1837 A system of civil registration of births, marriages and deaths is established in England and Wales
1855 Signing of the Quinault Treaty: The Quinault and the Quileute cede their land to the United States
1858 Joint reading of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace's papers on evolution to the Linnean Society in London
1862 The Russian State Library is founded as The Library of the Moscow Public Museum
1862 Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, second daughter of Queen Victoria, marries Prince Louis of Hesse, the future Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse
1862 American Civil War: The Battle of Malvern Hill takes place. It is the final battle in the Seven Days Campaign, part of George B. McClellan's Peninsula Campaign
1863 Keti Koti (Emancipation Day) in Suriname, marking the abolition of slavery by the Netherlands
1863 American Civil War: The Battle of Gettysburg begins
1867 The British North America Act of 1867 takes effect as the Constitution of Canada, creating the Canadian Confederation and the federal dominion of Canada; Sir John A. Macdonald is sworn in as the first Prime Minister of Canada. This date is commemorated annually in Canada as Canada Day, a national holiday
1870 The United States Department of Justice formally comes into existence
1873 Prince Edward Island joins the Canadian Confederation
1874 The Sholes and Glidden typewriter, the first commercially successful typewriter, goes on sale
1878 Canada joins the Universal Postal Union
1879 Charles Taze Russell publishes the first edition of the religious magazine The Watchtower
1881 The world's first international telephone call is made between St. Stephen, New Brunswick, Canada, and Calais, Maine, United States
1881 General Order 70, the culmination of the Cardwell and Childers reforms of the British Army, comes into effect
1885 The United States terminates reciprocity and fishery agreement with Canada
1890 Canada and Bermuda are linked by telegraph cable
1898 Spanish–American War: The Battle of San Juan Hill is fought in Santiago de Cuba
1903 Start of first Tour de France bicycle race
1908 SOS is adopted as the international distress signal
1911 Germany despatches the gunship Panther to Morocco, sparking the Agadir Crisis
1915 Leutnant Kurt Wintgens of the then-named German Fliegertruppe air service achieves the first known aerial victory with a synchronized machine-gun armed fighter plane, the Fokker M.5K/MG Eindecker
1916 World War I: First day on the Somme: On the first day of the Battle of the Somme 19,000 soldiers of the British Army are killed and 40,000 wounded
1921 The Communist Party of China is founded
1922 The Great Railroad Strike of 1922 begins in the United States
1923 The Canadian Parliament suspends all Chinese immigration
1931 United Airlines begins service (as Boeing Air Transport)
1932 Australia's national broadcaster, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, was formed
1935 Regina, Saskatchewan police and Royal Canadian Mounted Police ambush strikers participating in the On-to-Ottawa Trek
1942 World War II: First Battle of El Alamein
1942 The Australian Federal Government becomes the sole collector of income tax in Australia as State Income Tax is abolished
1943 Tokyo City merges with Tokyo Prefecture and is dissolved. Since this date, no city in Japan has the name "Tokyo" (present-day Tokyo is not officially a city)
1947 The Philippine Air Force is established
1948 Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Quaid-i-Azam) inaugurates Pakistan's central bank, the State Bank of Pakistan
1949 The merger of two princely states of India, Cochin and Travancore, into the state of Thiru-Kochi (later re-organized as Kerala) in the Indian Union ends more than 1,000 years of princely rule by the Cochin Royal Family
1957 The International Geophysical Year begins
1958 The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation links television broadcasting across Canada via microwave
1958 Flooding of Canada's St. Lawrence Seaway begins