Born on July 10

645 Soga no Iruka the son of Soga no Emishi a statesman in the Asuka Period of Japan.
1333 Roger de Clifford 5th Baron de Clifford the son of Robert de Clifford, 3rd Baron de Clifford , second son of Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford , the founder of the northern branch of the family. His mother was Isabella , daughter of Maurice, 2nd Lord Berkeley. He succeeded his elder brother, Robert de Clifford, 4th Baron de Clifford in 1350, on which day he made proof of his age
1410 Arnold Duke of Guelders Duke of Guelders, Count of Zutphen. He was son of John II of Egmond and Maria van Arkel
1419 Emperor Go-Hanazono the 102nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1428 through 1464
1451 James III of Scotland King of Scots from 1460 to 1488. James was an unpopular and ineffective monarch owing to an unwillingness to administer justice fairly, a policy of pursuing alliance with the Kingdom of England, and a disastrous relationship with nearly all his extended family. However, it was through his marriage to Margaret of Denmark that the Orkney and Shetland islands became Scottish
1509 John Calvin an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism. Originally trained as a humanist lawyer, he broke from the Roman Catholic Church around 1530. After religious tensions provoked a violent uprising against Protestants in France, Calvin fled to Geneva, Switzerland, where he published the first edition of his seminal work Institutes of the Christian Religion in 1536
1515 Francisco de Toledo an aristocrat and military of the Kingdom of Spain, which was the fifth Viceroy of Peru.
1517 Odet de Coligny a French cardinal of Châtillon, bishop of Beauvais, son of Gaspard I de Coligny and Louise de Montmorency, and brother of Gaspard and François, Seigneur d'Andelot.
1533 Antonio Possevino a Jesuit protagonist of Counter Reformation as a papal diplomat and a Jesuit controversialist, encyclopedist and bibliographer. He acted as papal legate and the first Jesuit to visit Moscow, vicar general of Sweden, Denmark and northern islands, Muscovy, Livonia, Rus, Hungary, Pomerania, Saxony between 1578 and 1586
1592 Pierre d'Hozier a French genealogist.
1606 Simion Movilă twice Prince of Wallachia and Prince of Moldavia on one occasion.
1607 Philippe Labbe a French Jesuit writer on historical, geographical and philological questions.
1614 Arthur Annesley 1st Earl of Anglesey an Anglo-Irish royalist statesman. After short periods as President of the Council of State and Treasurer of the Navy, he served as Lord Privy Seal between 1673 and 1682 for Charles He succeeded his father as 2nd Viscount Valentia in 1660, and he was created Earl of Anglesey in 1661
1625 Jean Herauld Gourville a French adventurer.
1638 David Teniers III a Flemish painter who was born in Antwerp, the son of David Teniers the Younger.
1658 Luigi Ferdinando Marsili an Italian soldier and naturalist.
1666 John Ernest Grabe born at Königsberg, where his father, Martin Sylvester Grabe, was professor of theology and history.
1682 Bartholomäus Ziegenbalg a member of the Lutheran clergy and the first Pietist missionary to India.
1682 Roger Cotes an English mathematician, known for working closely with Isaac Newton by proofreading the second edition of his famous book, the Principia, before publication. He also invented the quadrature formulas known as Newton–Cotes formulas and first introduced what is known today as Euler's formula. He was the first Plumian Professor at Cambridge University from 1707 until his death
1723 William Blackstone an English jurist, judge and Tory politician of the eighteenth century. He is most noted for writing the Commentaries on the Laws of England. Born into a middle-class family in London, Blackstone was educated at Charterhouse School before matriculating at Pembroke College, Oxford in 1738. After switching to and completing a Bachelor of Civil Law degree, he was made a Fellow of All Souls, Oxford on 2 November 1743, admitted to Middle Temple, and called to the Bar there in 1746. Following a slow start to his career as a barrister, Blackstone became heavily involved in university administration, becoming accountant, treasurer and bursar on 28 November 1746 and Senior Bursar in 1750. Blackstone is considered responsible for completing the Codrington Library and Warton Building, and simplifying the complex accounting system used by the college. On 3 July 1753 he formally gave up his practice as a barrister and instead embarked on a series of lectures on English law, the first of their kind. These were massively successful, earning him a total of £61,000 in 2014 terms, and led to the publication of An Analysis of the Laws of England in 1756, which repeatedly sold out and was used to preface his later works
1724 James Hamilton 6th Duke of Hamilton a Scottish peer.
1726 Alexander Kokorinov a Russian architect and educator, one of the founders, the first builder, director and rector of the Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint Peterburg. Kokorinov has been house architect of the Razumovsky family and Ivan Shuvalov, the first President of the Academy. Kokorinov's surviving architectural legacy, once believed to be substantial, has been reduced by recent research to only two buildings, the Imperial Academy of Arts and Kirill Razumovsky palace in Saint Petersburg. The Academy was designed by Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe based on an earlier proposal by Jacques-François Blondel, while Kokorinov managed the construction in its early phases
1730 Jean-Baptiste Willermoz a French Freemason and Martinist who played an important role in the establishment of various systems of Masonic high-degrees in his time in both France and Germany.
1735 Ulrika Pasch a Swedish painter and miniaturist. She was one of few female artists known in Scandinavia before the 19th century. Pasch was a self-supporting professional artist and the first female member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts. She was made a member in 1773, the year the academy was founded
1736 Maria Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh. Her marriage to the Duke without the knowledge of King George III led to the passing of the Royal Marriages Act 1772
1747 Princess Wilhelmina Caroline of Denmark the Electress of Hesse-Kassel.
1759 Pierre-Joseph Redouté a painter and botanist from the Southern Netherlands, known for his watercolours of roses, lilies and other flowers at Malmaison. He was nicknamed "The Raphael of flowers"
1766 Édouard Jean Baptiste Milhaud a French politician, Général de Division, and comte d'Empire. He is considered one of the best generals of cavalry of Napoleon's army
1767 Mathieu de Montmorency a prominent French statesman during the French Revolution and Bourbon Restoration.
1773 Charles-Simon Catel a French composer and educator born at L'Aigle, Orne.
1777 Cyprian Kreutz a general of the Russian Imperial Army known for his service in the Napoleonic Wars and the November Uprising.
1778 Sigismund von Neukomm an Austrian composer and pianist.
1780 Maximilian Spinola an Italian entomologist.
1786 John Baptiste Henri Joseph Desmazières a merchant of Lille and amateur mycologist from France. He was the editor of the scientific journals Annales des sciences naturelles and the Bulletin de la société des sciences de Lille
1792 John FitzGibbon 2nd Earl of Clare the son of John FitzGibbon, 1st Earl of Clare and his wife, Anne. He succeeded to the titles of Baron FitzGibbon in the Peerage of Great Britain and Earl of Clare in the Irish Peerage in 1802
1792 Frederick Marryat a British Royal Navy officer, novelist, and an acquaintance of Charles Dickens, noted today as an early pioneer of the sea story. He is now known particularly for the semi-autobiographical novel Mr Midshipman Easy and his children's novel The Children of the New Forest, and for a widely used system of maritime flag signalling, known as Marryat's Code
1792 George M. Dallas a U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania and the 11th Vice President of the United States , serving under President James Polk. Dallas also served as the Mayor of Philadelphia from 1828–1829
1793 Philip Barker-Webb an English botanist.
1796 Domenico Foroni an Italian composer, conductor, and music educator. He was born in Valeggio sul Mincio into a family of landowners. On 7 November 1818 he married Teresa Zovetto with whom he had five children, two of whom became famous: the operatic soprano Antonietta Foroni-Conti and the composer and conductor Jacopo Foroni. In 1818 he was appointed to the dual position of director and principal conductor of the Teatro Filarmonico in Verona, a position he held for over 25 years. He was also highly active as a teacher of singing and music composition in that city. Among his notable pupils were Gottardo Aldighieri, Paolo Bombardi, Domenico Conti, Carlo Pedrotti, Alessandro Sala, Maria Spezia-Aldighieri, and his children. Most of his compositional output was sacred music, the majority of which was written for services at the Verona Cathedral. Most of his music is now lost, but copies of his Miserere and Messe still exist
1796 Carl Henrik Boheman a Swedish entomologist.
1798 X. B. Saintine a French dramatist and novelist. He was born Joseph Xavier Boniface in Paris in 1798. In 1823, he produced a volume of poetry in the manner of the Romanticists, entitled Poèmes, odes, épîtres. In 1836 appeared Picciola, a novel about the comte de Charney, a political prisoner in Piedmont, whose reason was saved by his cultivation of a tiny flower growing between the paving stones of his prison yard. This story is a masterpiece of the sentimental kind, and has been translated into many European languages. The novel earned him renown and came to be regarded as a classic of French literature
1802 Robert Chambers (publisher born 1802) a Scottish publisher, geologist, evolutionary thinker, author and journal editor who, like his elder brother and business partner William Chambers, was highly influential in mid-19th century scientific and political circles.
1804 Emma Smith the first wife of Joseph Smith and a leader in the early days of the Latter Day Saint movement during Joseph's lifetime and afterward as a member of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. In 1842, she was named as the first president of the Ladies' Relief Society of Nauvoo, a women's service organization
1808 José María Linares president of Bolivia from 1857 to 1861. He was born in Tical, Potosí, on a farm. Belonging to the noble and wealthy family of the Counts of Lords and House of Rodrigo in Navarre, Linares was related to the Spanish nobility. He was educated at the Royal and Pontifical University of San Francisco Xavier, in Sucre
1809 Friedrich August von Quenstedt a German geologist and palaeontologist.
1819 Alfred von Arneth the son of Joseph Calasanza von Arneth , a well-known historian and archaeologist, who wrote a history of the Austrian Empire and several works on numismatics and brother of Doctor Franz Hektor von Arneth.
1819 Pieter Bleeker a Dutch medical doctor, ichthyologist and herpetologist. He was famous for the Atlas Ichthyologique des Orientales Neerlandaises, his monumental work on the fishes of East Asia; it was published between 1862 and 1877
1821 Carl Culmann a German structural engineer.
1823 Louis-Napoléon Casault a Quebec lawyer, judge, professor and political figure. He represented Bellechasse in the 1st Canadian Parliament from 1867 to 1870 as a Conservative member
1823 Sanford Robinson Gifford an American landscape painter and one of the leading members of the Hudson River School. Gifford's landscapes are known for their emphasis on light and soft atmospheric effects, and he is regarded as a practitioner of Luminism, an offshoot style of the Hudson River School