Died on July 10

138 Hadrian Roman Emperor from 117 to 138. He re-built the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma. He is also known for building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Roman Britain. Hadrian was regarded by some as a humanist and was philhellene in most of his tastes. He is regarded as one of the Five Good Emperors
649 Emperor Taizong of Tang the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China, ruling from 626 to 649. As he encouraged his father, Li Yuan to rise against Sui Dynasty rule at Taiyuan in 617 and subsequently defeated several of his most important rivals, he was ceremonially regarded as a co-founder of the dynasty along with Emperor Gaozu
772 Amalberga of Temse celebrated as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church. She is especially venerated in Temse, Ghent, Munsterbilzen and other parts of Flanders. Many miracles, such as crossing a river on a giant fish, are attributed to her
983 Pope Benedict VII Pope from October 974 to his death in 983.
994 Leopold I Margrave of Austria the first Margrave of Austria from the House of Babenberg, ruling from 976 to his death in 994. He is known today as the progenitor of the Babenberg dynasty in Austria
1086 Canute IV of Denmark King of Denmark from 1080 until 1086. Canute was an ambitious king who sought to strengthen the Danish monarchy, devotedly supported the Roman Catholic Church, and had designs on the English throne. Slain by rebels in 1086, he was the first Danish king to be canonized. He was recognized by the Roman Catholic Church as patron saint of Denmark in 1101
1103 Eric I of Denmark King of Denmark following his brother Olaf I Hunger in 1095. He was a son of king Sweyn II Estridsson. His mother's identity is unknown. He married Boedil Thurgotsdatter
1226 Az-Zahir (Abbasid caliph) the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1225 to 1226. He was the son of an-Nasir, and was named as his successor in 1189. In his short reign, he lowered the taxes, and built a strong army to resist to invasions. He died on 10 July 1226, nine months after his accession, and was succeeded by his son al-Mustansir
1290 Ladislaus IV of Hungary King of Hungary and Croatia from 1272 to 1290. His mother, Elizabeth was the daughter of a chieftain of the pagan Cumans who had settled in Hungary. At the age of eight, he married Elisabeth , a daughter of King Charles I of Sicily
1460 Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham an English nobleman. A great-grandson of King Edward III on his mother's side, he was a military commander in the Hundred Years' War and in the Wars of the Roses
1461 Stephen Thomas of Bosnia a member of the House of Kotromanić who reigned as the penultimate King of Bosnia from 1443 until his death. He succeeded his kinsman, Stephen Tvrtko II, but was not recognized as king by the kingdom's leading nobleman, Stjepan Vukčić Kosača. The two engaged in a civil war which ended with the King's marriage to the insubordinate nobleman's daughter Catherine. His reign was marked by conflicts with the Serbian Despotate and the Ottoman Empire. Stephen Thomas is perhaps best known as the first ruler of Bosnia who engaged in religious persecution. He was succeeded by his son, Stephen Tomašević, but the Kingdom fell to the Ottomans within two years
1473 James II of Cyprus the illegitimate son of John II of Cyprus and Marietta de Patras.
1510 Catherine Cornaro Queen of Cyprus from 26 August 1474 to 26 February 1489 and declared a "Daughter of Saint Mark" in order that Venice could claim control of Cyprus after the death of her husband, James II.
1559 Henry II of France a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 31 March 1547 until his death in 1559. The second son of Francis I, he became Dauphin of France upon the death of his elder brother Francis III, Duke of Brittany, in 1536
1561 Rüstem Pasha an Ottoman Croatian statesman. He served as the grand vizier of sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. Rüstem Pasha is also known as Damat Rüstem Pasha because of his marriage to one of the sultan's daughters
1584 William the Silent the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs that set off the Eighty Years' War and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1648. He was born in the House of Nassau as Count of Nassau-Dillenburg. He became Prince of Orange in 1544 and is thereby the founder of the branch House of Orange-Nassau and the ancestor of the monarchy of the Netherlands
1590 Charles II Archduke of Austria an Archduke of Austria and ruler of Inner Austria from 1564. He was a member of the House of Habsburg
1594 Paolo Bellasio an Italian composer and organist of the late Renaissance. He is generally considered to be a member of the Roman School, though unusually for the group he seems to have written only madrigals
1603 Joan Terès i Borrull presbyter of Vic, auxiliary bishop of Morocco , bishop of Elne and of Tortosa , and archbishop of Tarragona. He was viceroy of Catalonia and councillor of King Philip III of Spain
1615 Henry Neville (died 1615) an English courtier, politician and diplomat, noted for his role as ambassador to France and his unsuccessful attempts to negotiate between James I of England and the Houses of Parliament. In 2005 Neville was put forward as a candidate for the authorship of Shakespeare's works
1621 Charles Bonaventure de Longueval Count of Bucquoy a military commander who fought for Spain and the Holy Roman Empire during the Thirty Years' War.
1631 Constance of Austria queen of Poland as the second wife of King Sigismund III Vasa and the mother of King John II Casimir.
1653 Gabriel Naudé a French librarian and scholar. He was a prolific writer who produced works on many subjects including politics, religion, history and the supernatural. An influential work on library science was the 1627 book Advice on Establishing a Library. Naudé was later able to put into practice all the ideas he put forth in Advice, when he was given the opportunity to build and maintain the library of Cardinal Jules Mazarin
1680 Louis Moréri a French priest and encyclopaedist.
1683 François Eudes de Mézeray a French historian.
1686 John Fell (bishop) an English churchman and influential academic. He served as Dean of Christ Church, Oxford, and later concomitantly as Bishop of Oxford
1686 Ercole Ferrata an Italian sculptor of the Roman Baroque.
1690 Jan van Brakel a Dutch Rear Admiral who distinguished himself on many occasions during the Second and Third Anglo-Dutch wars and the Nine Years War. Almost nothing is known about Van Brakels early career; we know neither his year of birth nor his backgrounds. It used to be thought that he was the son of Commodore Pieter van Brakel, who was killed in the Second Anglo-Dutch War while defending a convoy of merchant ships, but this has become very unlikely now that we know Pieter van Brakel was himself born in 1624
1692 Heinrich Bach a German organist, composer and a member of the Bach family.
1700 Pieter Gerritsz van Roestraten a Dutch Golden Age painter of still lifes and genre scenes.
1762 Jan Frederik Gronovius a Dutch botanist notable as a patron of Linnaeus.
1767 John Frederick Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt the ruling Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt from 1744 to 1767.
1776 Richard Peters (cleric) born in Liverpool, became an attorney, Anglican minister, and civil servant. In 1735 he emigrated to Pennsylvania, where he served in numerous posts for the Penn family, including on the Governor's Council from 1749 to 1775, and eventually became rector of Christ Church in Philadelphia
1783 Adam František Kollár a Slovak jurist, Imperial-Royal Court Councilor and Chief Imperial-Royal Librarian, a member of Natio Hungarica in the Kingdom of Hungary, a historian, ethnologist, an influential advocate of Empress Maria Theresa's Enlightened and centralist policies. His advancement of Maria Theresa's status in the Kingdom of Hungary as its apostolic ruler in 1772 was used as an argument in support of the subsequent Habsburg annexations of Galicia and Dalmatia. Kollár is also credited with coining the term ethnology and providing its first definition in 1783. Some authors see him as one of the earliest pro-Slovak, pro-Slavic, and pan-Slavic activists in the Habsburg Monarchy
1794 Gaspard de Bernard de Marigny a French officer and Vendéen general.
1806 George Stubbs an English painter, best known for his paintings of horses.
1812 Carl Ludwig Willdenow a German botanist, pharmacist, and plant taxonomist. He is considered one of the founders of phytogeography, the study of the geographic distribution of plants. Willdenow was also a mentor of Alexander von Humboldt one of the earliest and best known phytogeographers
1814 Count Camillo Marcolini a minister and general director of the fine arts for the Electorate, later Kingdom of Saxony.
1817 Hugh Percy 2nd Duke of Northumberland an officer in the British army and later a British peer. He participated in the Battle of Lexington and Concord and the Battle of Long Island during the American Revolutionary War, but resigned his command in 1777 due to disagreements with his superior, General Howe
1826 Luther Martin a politician and one of United States' Founding Fathers, who refused to sign the Constitution because he felt it violated states' rights. He was a leading Anti-Federalist, along with Patrick Henry and George Mason, whose actions helped passage of the Bill of Rights
1828 Louis Augustin Guillaume Bosc a French botanist, invertebrate zoologist, and entomologist.
1839 Fernando Sor a Spanish classical guitarist and composer. While he is best known for his guitar compositions, he also composed music for a wide range of genres, including opera, orchestra, string quartet, piano, voice, and ballet. His ballet score Cendrillon received over one hundred performances. Sor’s works for guitar range from pieces for beginning players to advanced players such as Variations on a Theme of Mozart. Sor’s contemporaries considered him to be the best guitarist in the world, and his works for guitar have been widely played and reprinted since his death. Although modern classical guitar players usually do, Sor rarely used his annular finger or nails when playing
1848 Karoline Jagemann a major German tragedienne and singer. Her great roles included Elizabeth in Mary Stuart and Beatrice in The Bride of Messina. She is also notable as a mistress of Karl August, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, the father of her three children. Both she and Karl August had their portraits painted by Heinrich Christoph Kolbe
1849 Grand Duchess Alexandra Alexandrovna of Russia the eldest child of Alexander II of Russia and Marie of Hesse and by Rhine. She died from infant meningitis at the age of six and a half
1851 Louis Daguerre a French artist and photographer, recognized for his invention of the daguerreotype process of photography. He became known as one of the fathers of photography. Though he is most famous for his contributions to photography, he was also an accomplished painter and a developer of the diorama theatre
1858 Auguste de Montferrand a French Neoclassical architect who worked primarily in Russia. His two best known works are the Saint Isaac's Cathedral and the Alexander Column in Petersburg
1863 Clement Clarke Moore an American Professor of Oriental and Greek Literature, as well as Divinity and Biblical Learning, at the General Theological Seminary of the Protestant Episcopal Church, in New York City. Located on land donated by the "Bard of Chelsea" himself, the seminary still stands today on Ninth Avenue between 20th and 21st Streets, in an area known as Chelsea Square. Moore's connection with that institution continued for over twenty-five years. He is the author of the yuletide poem "A Visit from Nicholas", which later became famous as "'Twas the Night Before Christmas"
1863 Paul Jones Semmes a banker, businessman, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War, mortally wounded at the Battle of Gettysburg.
1865 Minna Herzlieb a German female publisher, and a publisher of Karl Ernst Friedrich Frommann.
1868 Jean-Pons-Guillaume Viennet a French politician, playwright and poet. He was also a member of the Académie française and a prominent Freemason