Born on July 11

937 Rudolph II of Burgundy king of Upper Burgundy , Lower Burgundy , and Italy. He was the son of Rudolph I, king of Upper Burgundy, a member of the Elder House of Welf, and it is presumed that his mother was his father's known wife, Guilla of Provence. He married Bertha of Swabia
1238 Dafydd ap Gruffydd Prince of Wales from 11 December 1282 until his execution on 3 October 1283 by King Edward I of England. He was the last independent ruler of Wales
1274 Robert the Bruce King of Scots from 1306 until his death in 1329. Robert was one of the most famous warriors of his generation, eventually leading Scotland during the Wars of Scottish Independence against England. He fought successfully during his reign to regain Scotland's place as an independent nation, and is today remembered in Scotland as a national hero
1302 John II of Brienne Count of Eu the son of John I of Brienne, Count of Eu and Beatrice of Saint-Pol. He succeeded his father as Count of Eu in 1294
1302 Pierre Flotte a French legalist, Chancellor and Keeper of the Seals of Philip IV the Fair. He was taught Roman law at the University of Montpellier, and was considered one of the best lawyers and legalists of his time. He led negotiations with the Roman Curia, England and Germany
1355 Frederick I Duke of Athens the Duke of Athens and Neopatria from 1348 to his death, also the Count of Malta. He succeeded his father John, Duke of Randazzo, in Greece after his father died of the Black Plague, but he too died of the same plague seven years later
1558 Robert Greene (dramatist) an English author popular in his day, and now best known for a posthumous pamphlet attributed to him, Greenes, Groats-worth of Witte, bought with a million of Repentance, widely believed to contain an attack on William Shakespeare. He is said to have been born in Norwich. He attended Cambridge, receiving a BA in 1580, and an M.A. in 1583 before moving to London, where he arguably became the first professional author in England. Greene published in many genres including romances, plays and autobiography
1561 Luis de Góngora a Spanish Baroque lyric poet. Góngora and his lifelong rival, Francisco de Quevedo, are widely considered the most prominent Spanish poets of all time. His style is characterized by what was called culteranismo, also known as Gongorism. This style existed in stark contrast to Quevedo's conceptismo
1603 Kenelm Digby an English courtier and diplomat. He was also a highly reputed natural philosopher, and known as a leading Roman Catholic intellectual and Blackloist. For his versatility, Anthony à Wood called him the "magazine of all arts"
1628 Tokugawa Mitsukuni a prominent daimyo who was known for his influence in the politics of the early Edo period. He was the third son of Tokugawa Yorifusa and succeeded him, becoming the second daimyo of the Mito domain
1638 Olympia Mancini Countess of Soissons the second eldest of the five celebrated Mancini sisters, who along with two of their female Martinozzi cousins, were known at the court of King Louis XIV of France as the Mazarinettes because their uncle was Louis XIV's chief minister, Cardinal Mazarin. Olympia was later to become the mother of the famous Austrian general Prince Eugene of Savoy. She also involved herself in various court intrigues including the notorious Poison Affair, which led to her expulsion from France
1657 Frederick I of Prussia Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia in personal union. The latter function he upgraded to royalty, becoming the first King in Prussia. From 1707 he was in personal union the sovereign prince of the Principality of Neuchâtel. He was also the paternal grandfather of Frederick the Great
1662 Maximilian II Emanuel Elector of Bavaria a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and a Kurfürst of the Holy Roman Empire. He was also the last governor of the Spanish Netherlands and duke of Luxembourg. An able soldier, his ambition led to conflicts that limited his ultimate dynastic achievements
1694 Charles-Antoine Coypel a French painter, art commentator, and playwright. He lived in Paris. He was the son of the artist Antoine Coypel and grandson of Noël Coypel. Charles-Antoine inherited his father’s design and painting duties as premier peintre du roi at the French court when his father died in 1722. He became premier peintre du roi and director of the Académie Royale in 1747. He received a number of commissions for paintings for the Palais de Versailles, and worked for Madame de Pompadour, the king’s mistress
1697 Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville both a geographer and cartographer who greatly improved the standards of map-making. His maps of ancient geography, characterized by careful, accurate work and based largely on original research, are especially valuable. He left unknown areas of continents blank and noted doubtful information as such; compared to the lavish maps of his predecessors, his maps looked empty
1709 Johan Gottschalk Wallerius a Swedish chemist and mineralogist.
1715 Jean-Joseph Balechou a French engraver.
1722 Prince George William of Hesse-Darmstadt a Prince of Hesse-Darmstadt. He was born in Darmstadt
1723 Jean-François Marmontel a French historian and writer, a member of the Encyclopediste movement.
1723 Landgravine Caroline Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt a consort of Baden, a dilettante artist, scientist, collector and salonist.
1732 Jérôme Lalande a French astronomer and writer.
1738 Albert Casimir Duke of Teschen a German prince from the House of Wettin who married into the Habsburg imperial family. He was noted as an art collector and founded the Albertina in Vienna, the largest and finest collection of old master prints and drawings in the world
1748 Henri François Anne de Roussel a French naturalist.
1751 Caroline Matilda of Great Britain Queen of Denmark and Norway from 1766 to 1775 as the wife of King Christian VII.
1754 Thomas Bowdler an English physician and philanthropist, best known for publishing The Family Shakspeare, an expurgated edition of William Shakespeare's work, edited by his sister Henrietta Maria Bowdler, intended to be more appropriate for 19th century women and children than the original. Although early editions of the work were published with the spelling "Shakspeare", after Bowdler's death, later editions adopted the spelling "Shakespeare", reflecting changes in the standard spelling of Shakespeare's name
1757 Johann Matthäus Bechstein a German naturalist, forester, ornithologist, entomologist, and herpetologist. In Great Britain, he was known for his treatise on singing birds
1767 John Quincy Adams an American statesman who served as the sixth President of the United States from 1825 to 1829. He also served as a diplomat, a Senator and member of the House of Representatives. He was a member of the Federalist, Democratic-Republican, National Republican, and later Anti-Masonic and Whig parties
1771 Princess Karoline Amalie of Hesse-Kassel a German princess and member of the House of Hesse-Kassel by birth, and Duchess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg by marriage.
1772 Domenico Ronconi an Italian operatic tenor who had an active international career in leading opera houses from 1796-1829. He then embarked on a second career as a voice teacher in Milan which lasted until his death in that city in 1839
1773 Pío de Tristán a Peruvian general and politician. He was nominally the last Spanish viceroy of Peru, serving in that capacity from December 1824 to January 23, 1826, but not exercising power
1774 Robert Jameson a Scottish naturalist and mineralogist.
1775 Joseph Blanco White a Spanish theologian and poet.
1781 Bartolomeo Borghesi an Italian antiquarian who was a key figure in establishing the science of numismatics.
1792 Heinrich Emanuel Grabowski a German botanist and pharmacist of Polish heritage. He was a native of Leobschütz
1795 Bernard Seurre a French sculptor. His younger brother Charles Émile Seurre was also a sculptor
1807 Karl Friedrich Canstatt a German physician and medical author.
1811 William Robert Grove a Welsh judge and physical scientist. He anticipated the general theory of the conservation of energy, and was a pioneer of fuel cell technology
1811 Henry Christian Timm a German-born American pianist, conductor, and composer.
1813 Célestin Nanteuil a French painter, engraver and illustrator closely tied to the Romantic movement in France. He was born in Rome of French parents who were part of Joseph Bonaparte's entourage. Nanteuil entered the École des Beaux-Arts in 1827, where he studied under Eustache-Hyacinthe Langlois, and then worked in the studio of Dominique Ingres. In 1848, he was made Director of Académie des beaux-arts and later became the curator of the Musée des beaux-arts in Dijon. He died in Bourron-Marlotte at the age of 60. His elder brother, Charles-François, was a noted sculptor who won the Prix de Rome in 1817
1816 Frans-Andries Durlet a Belgian architect, sculptor and printmaker.
1820 Friedrich von Spiegel a German orientalist. He was one of the pioneers in the field of Iranian philology
1824 Yulia Zhadovskaya a Russian poet and writer of fiction.
1825 Gabriel Sundukian an outstanding Armenian writer and playwright, the founder of modern Armenian drama.
1826 Franz Grashof a German engineer. He was a professor of Applied Mechanics at the Technische Hochschule Karlsruhe
1826 Alexander Afanasyev a Russian Slavist who published nearly 600 Russian folktales and fairytales, one of the largest folktale collection in the world. The first edition of his collection was published in eight fascicules from 1855–67, earning him the reputation of the Russian counterpart to the Brothers Grimm
1830 Jules Garcin a French violinist, conductor and composer of the 19th century.
1834 James Abbott McNeill Whistler an American-born, British-based artist active during the American Gilded Age. Averse to sentimentality and moral allusion in painting, he was a leading proponent of the credo "art for art's sake". His famous signature for his paintings was in the shape of a stylized butterfly possessing a long stinger for a tail. The symbol was apt, for it combined both aspects of his personality—his art was characterized by a subtle delicacy, while his public persona was combative. Finding a parallel between painting and music, Whistler entitled many of his paintings "arrangements", "harmonies", and "nocturnes", emphasizing the primacy of tonal harmony. His most famous painting is "Arrangement in Grey and Black 1" , commonly known as Whistler's Mother, the revered and oft-parodied portrait of motherhood. Whistler influenced the art world and the broader culture of his time with his artistic theories and his friendships with leading artists and writers
1836 Antônio Carlos Gomes the first New World composer whose work was accepted by Europe. The only non-European who was successful as an opera composer in Italy, during the "golden age of opera", contemporary to Verdi and Puccini
1837 Yohannes IV Emperor of Ethiopia from 1871 until his death.
1838 Wojciech Kętrzyński a historian and the director of the Ossolineum Library in Lviv, Austrian Empire. He focused on Polish history at a time when no independent Polish state existed. He was the father of Stanisław Kętrzyński