Born on July 12

1394 Ashikaga Yoshinori the 6th shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate who reigned from 1429 to 1441 during the Muromachi period of Japan. Yoshinori was the son of the third shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu
1468 Juan del Encina a composer, poet and playwright,:535 often called the founder, along with Gil Vicente, of Spanish drama. His name at birth was Juan de Fermoselle
1477 Jacopo Sadoleto Catholic Bishop and Cardinal, loyal to the Catholic Church.
1573 Pietro Carrera chess player, historian, priest and Italian author, born in Sicily, in Militello in Val di Catania , located in the Valley of Noto; here he grew up in the old colony of San Vito. He was born on July 12, 1573, he was the son of Donna Antonia Severino and Mariano Carrera, a traditional craftsman who entered the priesthood after his wife's death. During his studies in the Seminario Diocesiano of Siracusa, he had the opportunity to visit many different Sicilian cities. As a result of his travels he met Paolo Boi, so-called "The Siracusan", in the town of Palermo during 1597
1590 Nicolas Tournier a French Baroque painter.
1596 Michael I of Russia the first Russian Tsar of the house of Romanov. He was the son of Feodor Nikitich Romanov and Xenia. His reign marked the end of the Time of Troubles
1607 Jean Petitot a French-Swiss enamel painter.
1634 John George I Duke of Saxe-Eisenach
1651 Margaret Theresa of Spain Holy Roman Empress, German Queen, Archduchess consort of Austria, Queen consort of Hungary and Bohemia. She was the daughter of King Philip IV of Spain and his second wife Mariana of Austria. She was the elder sister of Charles II, the last of the Spanish Habsburgs. She is the central figure in the famous Las Meninas by Diego Velázquez, and subject of many of his later paintings
1657 Friedrich Wilhelm III Duke of Saxe-Altenburg a duke of Saxe-Altenburg.
1675 Evaristo Felice Dall'Abaco an Italian composer and cellist.
1701 James Kelly (pirate) an English pirate active in the Indian Ocean during the 1690s and was a longtime associate of Captain William Kidd. One of Kidd's earliest crew members, Gilliam was a participant in the mutiny on board the Moacha and the subsequent murder of Captain Edgecomb who was killed in his sleep. After taking command of the East Indiaman, Gilliam and the crew of the Mocha captured several ships in the eastern seas until his arrest after returning to New England with Kidd in 1699. Transported to Great Britain, he was tried at the Old Bailey and found guilty of piracy. While in prison, he wrote A full and true Discovery of all the Robberies, Pyracies, and other Notorious Actions, of that Famous English Pyrate, Capt. James Kelly which included references to the as yet undiscovered Galapagos Islands before his eventual execution on July 12, 1701
1712 Sir Francis Bernard 1st Baronet a British colonial administrator who served as governor of the provinces of New Jersey and Massachusetts Bay. His uncompromising policies and harsh tactics in Massachusetts angered the colonists and were instrumental in the building of broad-based opposition within the province to the rule of Parliament in the events leading to the American Revolution
1714 Mikhail Illarionovich Vorontsov a Russian statesman and diplomat, who laid foundations for the fortunes of the Vorontsov family.
1730 Josiah Wedgwood credited with the industrialisation of the manufacture of pottery. A prominent abolitionist, Wedgwood is remembered for his "Am I Not a Man And a Brother?" anti-slavery medallion. He was a member of the Darwin–Wedgwood family. He was the grandfather of Charles Darwin and Emma Darwin
1751 Julie Billiart a French religious leader who founded, and was the first Superior General of, the Congregation of the Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur.
1764 Charles Thévenin a neoclassical French painter, known for heroic scenes from the time of the French Revolution and First French Empire.
1790 David Hansemann a Prussian politician and banker, serving as the Prussian Minister of Finance in 1848.
1797 Adele Schopenhauer a German author. She was the sister of the philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer and daughter of author Johanna Schopenhauer. Henriette Sommer and Adrian van der Venne were pseudonyms used by her
1803 Peter Chanel a Catholic priest, missionary, and martyr.
1807 Thomas Hawksley an English civil engineer of the 19th century, particularly associated with early water supply and coal gas engineering projects. Hawksley was, with John Frederick Bateman, the leading British water engineer of the nineteenth century and was personally responsible for upwards of 150 water-supply schemes, in the British Isles and overseas
1810 Agénor de Gasparin a French statesman and author.
1812 Mirza Fatali Akhundov a celebrated Azerbaijani author, playwright, philosopher, and founder of modern literary criticism, "who acquired fame primarily as the writer of European-inspired plays in the Azeri Turkic language". Akhundzade singlehandedly opened a new stage of development of Azerbaijani literature and is also considered one of the founders of modern Iranian literature. He was also the founder of materialism and atheism movement in Azerbaijan and one of forerunners of modern Iranian nationalism
1813 Claude Bernard a French physiologist. Historian Bernard Cohen of Harvard University called Bernard "one of the greatest of all men of science". Among many other accomplishments, he was one of the first to suggest the use of blind experiments to ensure the objectivity of scientific observations. He was the first to define the term milieu intérieur, now known as homeostasis
1815 Hablot Knight Browne an English artist. Well-known by his pen name, Phiz, he illustrated books by Charles Dickens, Charles Lever, and Harrison Ainsworth
1816 Giovanni Simeoni an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who served as Prefect of the Sacred Congregation for Propagation of the Faith from 1878 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1875.
1817 Henry David Thoreau an American author, poet, philosopher, abolitionist, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, and historian. A leading transcendentalist, Thoreau is best known for his book Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay Resistance to Civil Government , an argument for disobedience to an unjust state
1821 Daniel Harvey Hill a Confederate general during the American Civil War and a Southern scholar. He was known as an aggressive leader, and as an austere, deeply religious man, with a dry, sarcastic humor. He was brother-in-law to Stonewall Jackson, a close friend to both James Longstreet and Joseph Johnston, but disagreements with both Robert Lee and Braxton Bragg cost him favor with Confederate President Jefferson Davis. Although his military ability was well respected, he was underutilized by the end of the Civil War on account of these political feuds
1824 Eugène Boudin one of the first French landscape painters to paint outdoors. Boudin was a marine painter, and expert in the rendering of all that goes upon the sea and along its shores. His pastels, summary and economic, garnered the splendid eulogy of Baudelaire; and Corot called him the "king of the skies"
1825 Mordecai Cubitt Cooke an English botanist and mycologist.
1828 Nikolay Chernyshevsky a Russian revolutionary democrat, materialist philosopher, critic, and socialist. He was the leader of the revolutionary democratic movement of the 1860s, and had an influence on Vladimir Lenin, Emma Goldman, and Serbian political writer and socialist Svetozar Marković
1832 Charles T. Hinde an industrialist, tycoon, riverboat captain, businessman, and entrepreneur. He managed many businesses and invested in numerous business ventures over the course of his life. Hinde served in executive leadership positions in the river navigation, shipping, railroad, and hotel businesses. By his late forties, Hinde had already amassed a great fortune from his work in the steamboat and railroad industries
1833 Wilhelm Krause a German anatomist born in Hanover. He was the son of anatomist Karl Friedrich Theodor Krause
1839 Jules-Clément Chaplain a French sculptor and one of its finest medallists. With Louis Oscar Roty he helped found the Art Nouveau movement
1841 Watson Fothergill an English architect who designed over 100 unique buildings in Nottingham in the East Midlands of England, his influences were mainly from the Gothic Revival and Old English vernacular architecture styles.
1847 Karl Heinrich Barth a noted German pianist and pedagogue.
1849 William Osler a Canadian physician and one of the four founding professors of Johns Hopkins Hospital. Osler created the first residency program for specialty training of physicians, and he was the first to bring medical students out of the lecture hall for bedside clinical training. He has frequently been described as the "Father of Modern Medicine". Osler was a person of many interests, who in addition to being a physician, was a bibliophile, historian, author, and renowned practical joker
1850 Otto Schoetensack a German industrialist and later professor of anthropology, born of financial means. During an archeological dig, he oversaw the worker Daniel Hartmann who found the lower jaw of a hominid, the oldest human fossil then known, which Schoetensack later described formally as Homo heidelbergensis
1852 Hipólito Yrigoyen a two-time President of Argentina. His activism became the prime impetus behind the obtainment of universal suffrage in Argentina in 1912. Known as “the father of the poor,” Yrigoyen presided over a rise in the standard of living of Argentina's working class together with the passage of a number of progressive social reforms, including improvements in factory conditions, regulation of working hours, compulsory pensions, and the introduction of a universally accessible public education system
1853 Louis Charles Trabut a French botanist and physician who was a native of Chambéry, department of Savoie. He is remembered for his work involving the flora of Algeria and Tunisia
1854 George Eastman an American innovator and entrepreneur who founded the Eastman Kodak Company and popularized the use of roll film, helping to bring photography to the mainstream. Roll film was also the basis for the invention of motion picture film in 1888 by the world's first film-makers Eadweard Muybridge and Louis Le Prince, and a few years later by their followers Léon Bouly, Thomas Edison, the Lumière Brothers, and Georges Méliès
1855 Ned Hanlan a professional sculler, hotelier, and alderman from Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
1856 George R. Mann a United States architect whose designs included the Arkansas State Capitol. He was the leading architect in Arkansas from 1900 until 1930, and his designs were among the finalists in competitions for the capitols of several other states
1856 Archduchess Gisela of Austria the second daughter and eldest surviving child of Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria and Empress Elisabeth. Her German title was Gisela Louise Marie, Erzherzogin von Österreich, Prinzessin von Bayern
1857 Giacomo Radini-Tedeschi the Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Bergamo. Today he is famous for his strong involvement in social issues at the beginning of 20th century
1859 Peter Verigin a Russian philosopher, activist and preacher of the Doukhobors.
1861 Percy Allan a civil engineer who designed a large number of public works in New South Wales, including the design of 583 bridges.
1861 Anton Arensky a Russian composer of Romantic classical music, a pianist and a professor of music.
1863 Albert Calmette a French physician, bacteriologist and immunologist, and an important officer of the Pasteur Institute. He discovered the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, an attenuated form of Mycobacterium used in the BCG vaccine against tuberculosis. He also developed the first antivenom for snake venom, the Calmette's serum
1863 Paul Drude a German physicist specializing in optics. He wrote a fundamental textbook integrating optics with Maxwell's theories of electromagnetism