Died on July 12

524 Viventiolus the Archbishop of Lyon , from the year of 514. Later canonized, his Feast Day is July 12
783 Bertrada of Laon a Frankish queen. She was the wife of Pepin the Short and the mother of Charlemagne, Carloman and Gisela
1067 John Komnenos (Domestic of the Schools) a Byzantine aristocrat and military leader. The younger brother of Emperor Isaac I Komnenos, he served as Domestic of the Schools during his brief reign. When Isaac I abdicated, Constantine X Doukas became emperor and John withdrew from public life until his death in 1067. Through his son Alexios I Komnenos, who became emperor in 1081, he was the progenitor of the Komnenian dynasty that ruled the Byzantine Empire from 1081 until 1185, and the Empire of Trebizond from 1204 until 1461
1073 John Gualbert an Italian Roman Catholic saint, the founder of the Vallumbrosan Order.
1230 Margaret Countess of Blois a French noblewoman. She was suo jure countess of Blois from 1218 to 1230
1429 Jean Gerson a French scholar, educator, reformer, and poet, Chancellor of the University of Paris, a guiding light of the conciliar movement and one of the most prominent theologians at the Council of Constance, was born at the village of Gerson, in the bishopric of Reims in Champagne.
1441 Ashikaga Yoshinori the 6th shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate who reigned from 1429 to 1441 during the Muromachi period of Japan. Yoshinori was the son of the third shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu
1450 Jack Cade the leader of a popular revolt against the government of England in 1450. At the time of the revolt, the weak and unpopular King Henry VI was on the throne. While little is known about the rebel leader himself, the events of the rebellion to which he gave his name are well recorded in fifteenth-century chronicles. The Jack Cade Rebellion stemmed from local grievances concerned about the corruption and abuse of power surrounding the king's regime and his closest advisors. Furthermore the rebels were angered by the debt caused by years of warfare against France and the recent loss of Normandy. Leading an army of men from Kent and the surrounding counties, Jack Cade marched on London in order to force the government to end the corruption and remove the traitors surrounding the king's person. Despite Cade's attempt to keep his men under control once the rebel forces had entered London they began to loot. The citizens of London turned on the rebels and forced them out of the city in a bloody battle on London Bridge. To end the bloodshed the rebels were issued pardons by the king and told to return home. Cade fled but was later caught on 12 July 1450 by Alexander Iden, a future High Sheriff of Kent. As a result of the skirmish with Iden, Cade was mortally wounded before reaching London for trial. The Jack Cade Rebellion has been perceived as a reflection of the social, political and economic issues of the time period and as a precursor to the Wars of the Roses which saw the decline of the Lancaster dynasty and the rise of the Yorks. The Jack Cade Rebellion was the largest popular uprising to take place in England during the 15th century
1489 Bahlul Khan Lodi chief of the Pashtun Lodi tribe and founder of Lodi dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate upon the abdication of the last claimant from the previous Sayyid rule. Bahlul became sultan of the dynasty on 19 April 1451
1536 Desiderius Erasmus a Dutch Renaissance humanist, Catholic priest, social critic, teacher, and theologian.
1545 Maria Manuela Princess of Portugal the eldest daughter and second child of King John III of Portugal and his wife Catherine of Austria. She was Princess of Asturias as the first wife of the future Philip II of Spain, and Princess of Portugal as heir presumptive to the Portuguese throne between 1527 and 1535
1584 Steven Borough born at Northam, Devon.
1637 Willem van Haecht a Flemish Baroque painter best known for his gallery pictures and the son of the landscape painter Tobias Verhaecht.
1643 François Duquesnoy a Flemish Baroque sculptor in Rome. His more idealized representations are often contrasted with the emotional character of Bernini's works, while his style shows greater affinity to Algardi's sculptures
1645 Michael I of Russia the first Russian Tsar of the house of Romanov. He was the son of Feodor Nikitich Romanov and Xenia. His reign marked the end of the Time of Troubles
1656 Marco Aurelio Severino an Italian surgeon and anatomist.
1664 Stefano della Bella an Italian draughtsman and printmaker known for etchings of a great variety of subjects, including military and court scenes, landscapes, and lively genre scenes. He left 1052 prints, and several thousand drawings, but only one known painting. He was born and died in Florence, Italy
1676 Duchess Elisabeth Sophie of Mecklenburg a German poet and composer.
1678 Antoine III de Gramont a French military man and diplomat. Marshal of France from 1641; Viceroy of Navarre and Béarn, and Governor of Bayonne
1679 Yuriy Trubetskoy a Ruthenian Prince, boyar of the Trubetsky family. In 1657, Prince Jurij Trubetsky went to Moscow with his uncle Aleksandr Yurievitch Trubetzkoy. Stolnik in Moscow in 1660, he was given a boyar title by Tsar Alexis I of Russia in 1673. In the late 17th century, the weakened Republic of Both Nations under King Jan III Sobieski in alliance with the forces of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, dealt the crushing defeats to the Ottoman Empire; Jerzy Trubecki was the Polish wojewoda of Kiev Voivodeship, 1673. He hold the scepter at the coronation of Fedor Alexeevitch in 1676
1682 Jean Picard a French astronomer and priest born in La Flèche, where he studied at the Jesuit Collège Royal Henry-Le-Grand. He died in Paris, France. He was the first person to measure the size of the Earth to a reasonable degree of accuracy in a survey conducted in 1669–70, for which he is honored with a pyramid at Juvisy-sur-Orge. Guided by Maurolycus's methodology and Snellius's mathematics for doing so, Picard achieved this by measuring one degree of latitude along the Paris Meridian using triangulation along thirteen triangles stretching from Paris to the clocktower of Sourdon, near Amiens. His measurements produced a result of 110.46 km for one degree of latitude, which gives a corresponding terrestrial radius of 6328.9 The polar radius has now been measured at just over 6357 This was an error only 0.44% less than the modern value. This was another example of advances in astronomy and its tools making possible advances in cartography. Picard was the first to attach a telescope with crosswires to a quadrant, and one of the first to use a micrometer screw on his instruments. The quadrant he used to determine the size of the Earth had a radius of 38 inches and was graduated to quarter-minutes. The sextant he used to find the meridian had a radius of six feet, and was equipped with a micrometer to enable minute adjustments. These equipment improvements made the margin of error only ten seconds, as opposed to Tycho Brahe's four minutes of error. This made his measurements 24 times as accurate. Isaac Newton was to use this value in his theory of universal gravitation
1684 John Rogers (Harvard) an English academic in early Colonial America. Eldest son of minister Nathaniel Rogers, he was born in Coggeshall, a small town in Essex, and immigrated to New England with his family in 1636. In 1649, at age 19, in the recent settlement of Cambridge , he earned a B.A. from Harvard College which, only seven years earlier, in 1642, had graduated its first class of students. In 1652, following an additional three years of study, he received an M.A. and, in 1660, married Elizabeth Denison of Ipswich
1712 Thomas Osborne 1st Duke of Leeds KG , English statesman , served in a variety of offices under Kings Charles II and William III of England.
1712 Richard Cromwell the second ruling Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, serving for just under nine months, from 3 September 1658 until 25 May 1659. After his fall from power, he was given the unflattering nicknames of Tumbledown Dick and Queen Dick by Royalists
1726 William Fly an English pirate who raided New England shipping fleets for three months in 1726 until he was captured by the crew of a seized ship. He was hanged in Boston, Massachusetts and his body publicly exhibited as a warning to other pirates. His death is considered by many to mark the end of the Golden Age of Piracy
1733 Anne-Thérèse de Marguenat de Courcelles generally known as the Marquise de Lambert, was a French writer and salonnière.
1742 Evaristo Felice Dall'Abaco an Italian composer and cellist.
1749 Charles de la Boische Marquis de Beauharnois a French Naval officer who served as Governor of New France from 1726 to 1746.
1751 Tokugawa Yoshimune the eighth shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, ruling from 1716 until his abdication in 1745. He was the son of Tokugawa Mitsusada, the grandson of Tokugawa Yorinobu, and the great-grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu
1771 Flavio Chigi (1711–1771) an Italian Roman Catholic cardinal. He was a member of the noble Chigi family, nephew of Fabio Chigi, Pope Alexander VII
1773 Johann Joachim Quantz a German flutist, flute maker and composer. He composed hundreds of flute sonatas and concertos, and wrote On Playing the Flute, a treatise on flute performance
1785 Louis-René de Caradeuc de La Chalotais primarily remembered for his role on the so-called "Brittany affair", in which the Breton parliament resisted the authority of the French monarchy. The affair has been seen as a precursor of the French Revolution
1795 Archduke Alexander Leopold of Austria Palatine of Hungary, appointed during the reign of his father, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II, and serving into the reign of his elder brother, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II.
1804 Alexander Hamilton a founding father of the United States, chief staff aide to General George Washington, one of the most influential interpreters and promoters of the U.S. Constitution, the founder of the nation's financial system, and the founder of the first political party
1814 Antonio de Escaño a Spanish army and navy officer. From 1808 to 1810 he was Spain's Minister for the Navy
1814 William Howe 5th Viscount Howe a British army officer who rose to become Commander-in-Chief of British forces during the American War of Independence. Howe was one of three brothers who enjoyed distinguished military careers
1829 Charles Sapinaud de La Rairie a French soldier and Vendéen general during the war in the Vendée.
1834 David Douglas a Scottish botanist. He was born to John Douglas, a stonemason, and Jean Drummond. He worked as a gardener, and explored the Scottish Highlands, North America, and Hawaii, where he died
1838 Isatay Taymanuly a Kazakh hero and leader of a rebellion against Zhangir-Kerey Khan of Bokey Horde and the Russian rulers of Kazakhstan in the 19th century.
1845 Henrik Wergeland a Norwegian writer, most celebrated for his poetry but also a prolific playwright, polemicist, historian, and linguist. He is often described as a leading pioneer in the development of a distinctly Norwegian literary heritage and of modern Norwegian culture
1845 Friedrich Ludwig Persius a Prussian architect and a student of Karl Friedrich Schinkel.
1849 Dolley Madison the wife of James Madison, President of the United States from 1809 to 1817. She was noted for her social gifts, which boosted her husband’s popularity as President. In this way, she did much to define the role of the President’s spouse, known only much later by the title First Lady—a function she had sometimes performed earlier for the widowed Jefferson
1855 Pavel Nakhimov one of the most famous admirals in Russian naval history, best remembered as the commander of naval and land forces during the Siege of Sevastopol during the Crimean War.
1870 John A. Dahlgren a United States Navy leader. He headed the Union Navy's ordnance department during the American Civil War and designed several different kinds of guns and cannons that were considered part of the reason the Union won the war. For these achievements, Dahlgren became known as the "father of American naval ordnance." He reached the rank of rear admiral
1872 John Rae (economist) a Scottish/Canadian economist. He was born to an unknown mother and a merchant father whose bankruptcy caused him to move to Montreal in 1822, after he graduated from the University of Aberdeen. Later, he moved to Williamston and Hamiliton in Ontario, Canada where his wife died of cholera. He was well acquainted with the Scottish/Canadian community and affiliated with the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. In Canada he worked as a timber trader, schoolteacher and a doctor. In 1834, he moved to Boston and New York where he also worked as a teacher. He went on to Central America where he was a physician, and he moved with the gold-miners to California in 1849, and a couple years later, poor and sick of malaria, he finds enough money to board a ship to the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi where he worked as many different professions. He was a medical officer for the Hawaiian Board of Health and vaccinated a number of native children of smallpox. He was geologist and wrote papers on the geology of the islands. He was also a historian in Hāna, Maui, writings articles for the newspaper Polynesian. He also wrote a number of manuscripts, but these were lost in a fire at Lahainaluna Seminary. His most famous work was the Statement of Some New Principles on the Subject of Political Economy. Influenced by both Adam Smith and David Hume, his influence lingered all the way to the 20th century. So much so that economist Irving Fisher and Austrian economist Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk prefaced their work with Rae's, thanking him for contributions to modern economics while very few had heard of his work
1877 Georg Adolf Erman a German physicist.
1880 Tom Taylor an English dramatist, critic, biographer, public servant, and editor of Punch magazine. He wrote about 100 plays during his career, including Our American Cousin , famous as the play which was being performed in the presence of American President Abraham Lincoln when he was assassinated in 1865
1881 Auguste Gendron a French painter.
1882 Alfred Pease (musician) Humphreys Pease , studied at Kenyon College and later in Germany under music professors Theodor Kullak, Richard Wüerst, Wilhelm Wieprecht, and Hans von Bülow.
1885 Mihail Cerchez a Romanian general descended from an old Moldavian family of Circassian origin. He led Romanian troops in the Romanian War of Independence in Griviţa, Bucov, Opanez, Smardan, Pleven, Vidin