July 12 events in history

927 Æthelstan, King of England, secures a pledge from Constantine II of Scotland that the latter will not ally with Viking kings, beginning the process of unifying Great Britain. This is considered the closest thing that England has to a foundation date
1191 Third Crusade: Saladin's garrison surrenders to Philip Augustus, ending the two-year siege of Acre
1470 The Ottomans capture Euboea
1493 Hartmann Schedel's Nuremberg Chronicle, one of the best-documented early printed books, is published
1527 Lê Cung Hoàng ceded the throne to Mạc Đăng Dung, ending the Lê Dynasty and starting the Mạc Dynasty
1543 King Henry VIII of England marries his sixth and last wife, Catherine Parr, at Hampton Court Palace
1561 Saint Basil's Cathedral in Moscow is consecrated
1562 Fray Diego de Landa, acting Bishop of Yucatán, burns the sacred books of the Maya
1580 The Ostrog Bible, one of the early printed Bibles in a Slavic language, is published
1690 Battle of the Boyne (Gregorian calendar) – The armies of William III defeat those of the former James II
1691 Battle of Aughrim (Julian calendar) – The decisive victory of William III of England's forces in Ireland
1776 Captain James Cook begins his third voyage
1789 French revolutionary and radical journalist Camille Desmoulins gave a speech in response to the dismissal of Jacques Necker France's finance minister the day before. The speech calls the citizens to arms and leads to the Storming of the Bastille two days later
1790 The Civil Constitution of the Clergy is passed in France by the National Constituent Assembly
1799 Ranjit Singh conquers Lahore and becomes Maharaja of the Punjab (Sikh Empire)
1801 French Revolutionary Wars: British Royal Navy ships inflict heavy damage against Spanish and French ships in the Second Battle of Algeciras
1804 Former United States Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton dies a day after being shot in a duel
1806 Liechtenstein is given full sovereignty after its accession to the Confederation of the Rhine
1806 Sixteen German imperial states leave the Holy Roman Empire and form the Confederation of the Rhine
1812 War of 1812: The United States invades Canada at Windsor, Ontario
1862 The Medal of Honor is authorized by the United States Congress
1879 The National Guards Unit of Bulgaria is founded
1913 Second Balkan War: Serbian forces begin their siege of the Bulgarian city of Vidin; the siege is later called off when the war ends
1917 The Bisbee Deportation occurs as vigilantes kidnap and deport nearly 1,300 striking miners and others from Bisbee, Arizona
1918 The Imperial Japanese Navy battleship Kawachi blows up at Shunan, western Honshu, Japan, killing at least 621
1920 The Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty is signed. Soviet Russia recognizes independent Lithuania
1932 Hedley Verity takes a cricket world record ten wickets for ten runs in a county match for Yorkshire
1943 World War II: Battle of Prokhorovka – German and Soviet forces engage in one of the largest tank engagements of all time
1948 Arab–Israeli War: Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion orders the expulsion of Palestinians from the towns of Lod and Ramla
1960 Orlyonok, the main Young Pioneer camp of the Russian SFSR, is founded
1961 Pune floods due to failure of the Khadakwasla and Panshet dams. Half of Pune is submerged, more than 100,000 families need to be relocated and the death toll exceeds 2,000
1962 The Rolling Stones perform their first concert, at the Marquee Club in London, England, United Kingdom
1963 Pauline Reade, who was 16-years-old, disappears on her way to a dance at the British Railways Club in Gorton, England, the first victim in the Moors murders
1967 The Newark riots begin in Newark, New Jersey
1970 A fire consumes the wooden home of Norwegian composer Geirr Tveitt and irretrievably destroys about 90 percent of his output
1971 The Australian Aboriginal Flag is flown for the first time
1973 A fire destroys the entire sixth floor of the National Personnel Records Center of the United States
1975 São Tomé and Príncipe declare independence from Portugal
1979 The island nation of Kiribati becomes independent from United Kingdom
1989 Lotte World Adventure opened in Seoul, South Korea
2006 Hezbollah initiates Operation True Promise
2007 U.S. Army Apache helicopters perform airstrikes in Baghdad, Iraq; footage from the cockpit is later leaked to the Internet
2012 The Turaymisah massacre kills 250 people during a Syrian military operation in a village within the Hama Governorate