Born on July 13

982 Pandulf II of Salerno the prince of Salerno , the second of such princes of the family of the princes of Capua. He was originally appointed heir to the childless Gisulf I of Salerno, who had been reinstated on his throne by Pandulf's father, Pandulf Ironhead. On the former's death in 977, he succeeded him as co-prince of Salerno with his father. On the latter's death in March 981, the Ironhead's great principality was divided such that he inherited only Salerno, while Capua-Benevento went to his elder brother Landulf IV
982 Landulf IV of Benevento the prince of Capua and Benevento from 968, when he was associated with his father, Pandulf Ironhead, and prince of Salerno associated with his father from 977 or 978. In 968, his uncle Landulf III died and this was the occasion of his rise, Pandulf ignored the rights of Landulf's son Pandulf, his nephew, and instead associated his own son with the government
982 Gunther Margrave of Merseburg the Margrave of Merseburg from 965 until his death, upon which the march of Merseburg was united to that of Meissen.
1442 Vannozza dei Cattanei an Italian woman who was one of the many mistresses of Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia, later to become Pope Alexander Among them, she was the one whose relationship with him lasted the longest.
1447 Stephen II of Moldavia a Prince of Moldavia. He ruled alone between September 1434 and August 1435, jointly with Iliaş of Moldavia from August 1435 to May 1443, alone from May 1443 to May 1444, in association with his brother Petru from May 1444 to 1445, and alone until July 1447
1478 Giulio d'Este the illegitimate son of Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, the result of an affair with Isabella Arduin, a lady in the service of Ercole's wife. He is known for the conflicts he had with his half brother Ippolito d'Este, which culminated in a failed conspiracy that Giulio conducted against both Ippolito and another half brother Alfonso I d'Este, then Duke of Ferrara
1484 Pedro Álvarez de Toledo Marquis of Villafranca the first effective Spanish viceroy of Naples, 1532–1552, responsible for considerable social, economic and urban change in the city and southern Italian kingdom, in general.
1527 John Dee a mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, occultist, imperialist and adviser to Queen Elizabeth He devoted much of his life to the study of alchemy, divination and Hermetic philosophy.
1579 Arthur Dee a physician and alchemist.
1590 Pope Clement X Pope from 29 April 1670 to his death in 1676.
1597 Sebastian Stoskopff an Alsatian painter. He is considered one of the most important German still life painters of his time. His works, which were rediscovered after 1930, portray goblets, cups and especially glasses. The reduction to a few objects, which is characteristic of early still life painting, can again be recognized in Stoskopff's painting. His chief works hang in Strasbourg and in Saarbrücken
1607 Wenceslaus Hollar a Bohemian etcher, known in England as Wenceslaus or Wenceslas and in Germany as Wenzel Hollar. He was born in Prague, and died in London, being buried at St Margaret's Church, Westminster
1608 Ferdinand III Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor from 15 February 1637 until his death, as well as King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria.
1677 Johann Georg Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels a duke of Saxe-Weissenfels-Querfurt and a member of the House of Wettin.
1727 Johann Christoph Gatterer a German historian who was a native of Lichtenau. He was the father of cameralist Christoph Wilhelm Jacob Gatterer and poet Magdalena Philippine Engelhard
1733 Charles of Saxony Duke of Courland a German prince from the House of Wettin and Duke of Courland.
1745 Robert Calder a British naval officer who served in the Seven Years' War, the American Revolutionary War, the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.
1756 Thomas Rowlandson an English artist and caricaturist.
1760 István Pauli a Hungarian Slovene Roman Catholic priests. Pauli or the teacher of Pertoča György Kousz was the author of a hymnal in Pertoča
1767 Friedrich Adolf Krummacher a German Reformed theologian and a writer of devotional poetry and prose.
1767 Pierre François Joseph Durutte joined the French army at the beginning of the French Revolutionary Wars. Rapidly promoted for feats of bravery under fire at Jemappes in 1792 and Hondschoote in 1793, he found himself appointed to serve as a staff officer. He distinguished himself during the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland in 1799 and received promotion to general officer. During the successful 1800 campaign he fought in Jean Victor Marie Moreau's army. Promoted again in 1803, his career then stalled because of his association with the banished Moreau and his unwillingness to see Napoleon Bonaparte as emperor
1770 Alexander Balashov a Russian general and statesman.
1773 Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder a German jurist and writer. With Ludwig Tieck, he was a co-founder of German Romanticism
1776 Caroline of Baden an Electress of Bavaria and later the first Queen consort of Bavaria as the spouse of King Maximilian I Joseph.
1779 William Hedley born in Newburn, near Newcastle upon Tyne. He was one of the leading industrial engineers of the early 19th century, and was instrumental in several major innovations in early railway development. While working as a 'viewer' or manager at Wylam Colliery near Newcastle upon Tyne, he built the first practical steam locomotive which relied simply on the adhesion of iron wheels on iron rails
1783 Augustus Grand Duke of Oldenburg the Grand Duke of Oldenburg from 1829 to 1853.
1791 Allan Cunningham (botanist) an English botanist and explorer, primarily known for his travels in Australia to collect plants.
1793 John Clare an English poet, the son of a farm labourer, who came to be known for his celebratory representations of the English countryside and his lamentation of its disruption. His poetry underwent a major re-evaluation in the late 20th century, and he is now often considered to be among the most important 19th-century poets. His biographer Jonathan Bate states that Clare was "the greatest labouring-class poet that England has ever produced. No one has ever written more powerfully of nature, of a rural childhood, and of the alienated and unstable self"
1796 Gustav Seyffarth a German-American Egyptologist, born in Uebigau.
1798 Alexandra Feodorovna (Charlotte of Prussia) Empress consort of Russia. She was the wife of Emperor Nicholas I, and mother of Emperor Alexander II
1808 Antonio Arenas the interim President of Peru, officially the President of the Government Junta of Peru, from December 3, 1885 to July 5, 1886.
1811 George Gilbert Scott an English Gothic revival architect, chiefly associated with the design, building and renovation of churches and cathedrals, although he started his career as a leading designer of workhouses. He was one of the most prolific architects which Great Britain has produced, over 800 buildings being designed or altered by him
1813 Nicholas Benois an Imperial Russian architect who worked in Peterhof and other suburbs of St Petersburg.
1813 Theophil Hansen a Danish architect who later became an Austrian citizen. He became particularly well known for his buildings and structures in Athens and Vienna, and is considered an outstanding representative of neoclassicism
1816 Gustav Freytag a German novelist and playwright.
1821 Nathan Bedford Forrest a lieutenant general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War. He is remembered both as a self-educated, innovative cavalry leader during the war and as a leading southern advocate in the postwar years. He was a pledged delegate from Tennessee to the New York Democratic national convention of 4 July 1868. He served as the first Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan, but later distanced himself from the organization
1825 Anton Heinrich Springer a German art historian and writer.
1826 Stanislao Cannizzaro an Italian chemist. He is remembered today largely for the Cannizzaro reaction and for his influential role in the atomic-weight deliberations of the Karlsruhe Congress in 1860
1831 Arthur Böttcher a Baltic German pathologist and anatomist who was a native of Bauska, in what was then the Courland Governorate. He worked primarily within the Russian Empire
1835 Eugène Jacob de Cordemoy a French physician and botanist born 1835 in Saint-André, Réunion who died on 25 April 1911 in Hellbourg, Salazie, Réunion.
1841 Otto Wagner an Austrian architect and urban planner, known for his lasting impact on the appearance of his home town Vienna, to which he contributed many landmarks.
1842 Eustachy Stanisław Sanguszko a Polish noble , conservative politician.
1843 Jean Marie Antoine de Lanessan a French statesman and naturalist.
1845 Theodor Hertzka a Jewish-Hungarian-Austrian economist and journalist.
1847 Roger Wolcott (Massachusetts) a Republican lawyer and politician from Massachusetts. He was Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts from 1893 to 1897, becoming Acting Governor in 1896 upon the death of Governor Frederic Greenhalge. He was elected governor in his own right in 1897, serving until 1900
1847 Princess Leopoldina of Brazil a member of the Brazilian Imperial Family, the third child and second daughter of Emperor Pedro II of Brazil and his consort Teresa Cristina of the Two Sicilies. By marriage she was Princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, and Duchess in Saxony. After having four sons, she died at the age of 23
1851 Sergey Stepnyak-Kravchinsky the Russian who killed the chief of that country's secret police with a dagger in the streets of Petersburg in 1878.
1854 Walter Long 1st Viscount Long a British Unionist politician. In a political career spanning over 40 years, he held office as President of the Board of Agriculture, President of the Local Government Board, Chief Secretary for Ireland, Secretary of State for the Colonies and First Lord of the Admiralty. He is also remembered for his links with Irish Unionism and served as Leader of the Irish Unionist Party in the House of Commons from 1905 to 1910
1854 Aristarkh Belopolsky a Russian astronomer. He was born in Moscow but his father's ancestors are from a Serbian town called Belo Polje
1855 Georg Volkens a German botanist born in Berlin.